Working With Water in Medieval Europe: Technology and by Paolo Squatriti, Thomas Glick, Richard Holt, Dr Colin Rynne,

By Paolo Squatriti, Thomas Glick, Richard Holt, Dr Colin Rynne, Richard Hoffmann, Roberta Magnusson, Te Brake, Klaus Greve, Paul Benoit

A finished survey of the suggestions humans used to harness, and safeguard themselves from, water in Western Christendom from 500-1500, every one bankruptcy of this quantity units the applied sciences of fishing, land drainage, irrigation, flood regulate, and water provide inside of a social and cultural context.

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56 Orifice bores are normally associated with certain types of Portuguese rodizio mills and Romanian cuitura mills (on which see page 49 below) and with all the known varieties of arubah penstock mills; where they were interchangeable and could thus be adapted to suit available waterheads. 10) These also, it is clear, produced a more concentrated waterjet and also, to a certain extent, reduced surface spray. In this regard, it is worthy of note that the Irish flumes, with their characteristic narrow orifices, are more sophisticated than the vast majority 54 55 56 Fahy (1956), 17.

Up until quite recently the cluster of early medieval dates for Irish horizontal-wheeled sites, and the apparent absence of high medieval sites from the archaeological record, led to the suggestion that a shortage of timber for building purposes seriously curtailed 82 83 Rynne (1989), 25. Rynne (1989), 30-1. 44 COLIN RYNNE mill-building activity. D. In the eleventh-century text of Togail Bruidne Da Derga there is a clear-cut reference to a sciatha or horizontal waterwheel paddle (pages 8, 11). ) also occurs in Fled Bricenn.

1. Plummer (1910), vol. 1, 82, 193-94; MacEoin (1982), 15. Simpson (1976). D. 42 The formation of millponds, however, is less well documented in early medieval European sources. Millponds are referred to in the sixth century Visigothic law code and in c. D. D. 44 There can be little doubt that by the later medieval period millponds were common features of the landscape. 45 Their frequency was such that early Irish jurists went to great lengths to provide a legal framework for the water rights pertaining to them, as is evidenced by the law tract Coibnes Uisci Thairidne.

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