Wissenschaft und Anti-Wissenschaft by Prof. Gerald Holton (auth.)

By Prof. Gerald Holton (auth.)

Was once ist gute Wissenschaft? Welches Ziel ist das richtige Ziel jeder wissenschaftlichen Tätigkeit? Gibt es eine rechtfertigende Autorität, auf die sich Wissenschaftler berufen können? Für diese heute wieder heftig diskutierten Fragen muß jede wissenschaftliche Ära ihre eigenen Lösungen finden. Gerald Holton, Professor für Physik und Wissenschaftsgeschichte an der Harvard Universität, analysiert die lange konfliktreiche Beziehung zwischen wissenschaftlicher Weltsicht und ihren anti-wissenschaftlichen Kritikern – nicht im abstrakten Sinn, sondern im Rahmen konkreter historischer Fälle. Er zeigt, daß die Empiriker des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, vor allem Ernst Mach, die Wissenschaftler und Philosophen des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts maßgeblich beeinflußt haben. Die Konfliktgeschichte über richtige Ziele und Legitimation der Wissenschaft wird in den Haltungen unterschiedlicher Wissenschaftler wie z.B. Albert Einstein, Max Planck oder Niels Bohr sichtbar. "Das ist ein außergewöhnlich durchdachtes, scharfsinniges und kluges Werk für jeden, der sich mit der Zukunft der Wissenschaften befaßt." John Ziman in Nature

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EinhundertsechsunddreiBig Briefe aus dem Archiv der Open Court Publishing Company von 1886-1930 wurden von der Edward C. Hegeler Foundation und Mitgliedern der Familie Carus im Dezember 1968 an die Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois tibergeben; sie befinden sich in den Morris Library Special Collections - Manuskripte. Sie enthalten Briefwechsel mit Ludwig Mach. Diese Bestande tiberschneiden sich mit jenen des Ernst-Mach-Instituts in Freiburg im Breisgau. Ich danke der Kuratorin der Manuskripte-Abteilung an der Morris Library, Sheila Ryan dafur, daB sie mir Kopien des Briefwechsels zwischen Ernst und Ludwig Mach zuganglich gemacht hat und fur die Erlaubnis, Ausschnitte daraus zu zitieren.

80 Die Energie und Uberzeugungskraft der Fuhrer der Bewegung waren enorm. Ein Beispiel fur die weitsichtige Ausdehnung ihres Einflusses auf die Aufmerksamkeit amerikanischer Gelehrter war ein Briefvom 29. Oktober 1950, den Morris im Namen des Instituts an Robert K. Merton von der Columbia Universitiit geschrieben harte. Das Institut teilte darin mit, daH. " So harte, Jahre bevor dieses Gebiet beg onnen hatte, allgemeine Aufmerksamkeit in Akademikerkreisen zu erlangen, das Institut das Unterfangen, darilber eine Bibliographie zu verfassen, sowie die richtige Person dafur, ins Visier genommen.

Juni 1912 seine Zweifel tiber den Monismus aus, solange dieser fUr verschiedene Anhanger so viele unterschiedliche Bedeutungen hatte. 15. Mach an Carus, 7. Jan. 1895; und Ludwig Mach an Carus, 28. Feb. 1913. 16. Wie Carus am 10. Nov. 1911 an Mach schrieb, hatten er und Edward Carl Hegeler (Grunder des Verlagshauses) schon friih gehofft, Ludwig nach La Salle zu bringen, urn zu "sehen, was er mit der amerikanischen Industriearbeit anfangen konnte". Am 27. Sept. 1889 hatte Carus an Mach geschrieben, daB er leider die Einladung der "Clark University in Wooster [sic], Massachusetts", nicht annehmen konnte.

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