Variability of Air Temperature and Atmospheric Precipitation by Rajmund Przybylak

By Rajmund Przybylak

It's been identified no less than because the finish of the century that the polar parts play an important position within the formation of the Earth’s climates. it's also identified this day that they're the main delicate areas to climatic swap, and are therefore excellent case stories for the detection of such alterations. the main severe situation to the learn of climatic and different geographical parts of the polar parts (including the Arctic) has regularly been the serious weather conditions which be successful in those areas. due to those severe con- tions, study into specific components of the climatic approach (including the ambience) all started the following a lot later than it did in decrease latitudes. for example, the total zone of the Arctic used to be now not sufficiently coated with a community of meteorological stations till the past due Forties (and even then there have been huge parts of the critical Arctic and the Greenland inside for which no information have been available). this is often most likely why it was once now not till the beginning of the Nineteen Nineties physique of labor began appearing which analysed in any intensity climatic variability for the Arctic as a complete. whereas a lot of papers were p- lished ahead of this era, so much of them have been neighborhood reports featuring hugely localised details, delivering air temperature measurements yet frequently little else.

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1 Long-term and Extreme Means Before discussing particular aspects of the variability of T in the Arctic, it is worthwhile reviewing its mean spatial distribution in this area. A review of the literature shows that there are few publications in which information on this issue can be found. g. Vowinckel & Orvig 1970, Donina 1971 and Martyn 1985). More recent studies in this field include CIA (1978), Atlas Arktiki (1985), and Herman (1986). In most of those studies the spatial distribution of T is shown only for January and July.

For more information, see Chapter 9. 2 At present, data for all of Canada, including the Canadian Arctic, are being homogenised. For more details, see Chapter 9. Chapter 4 VARIABILITY IN ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION IN THE ARCTIC BETWEEN 1939 AND 1990 It is impossible to evaluate the causes of variability in T and P in the Arctic without research on variability in atmospheric circulation therein. As is widely known, the role of this circulation in determining climate is much greater here than at lower geographical latitudes.

However, as may be seen from Figure 15 in the work by Walsh and Chapman (1990), no significant trends of T occurred in the remaining regions of the Arctic. In another work of theirs analysing data from 1961–1990, they observed an increase in T in the Arctic; the increase was the strongest in the winter and in the spring (Chapman & Walsh 1993). However, they reached such a conclusion taking into consideration also the course of T in sub-polar regions. If we consider the Arctic as it is delineated in Atlas Arktiki (1985), we will observe the existence of insignificant trends.

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