Used Battery Collection and Recycling by G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux, S.P. Wolsky

By G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux, S.P. Wolsky

This ebook covers all points of spent battery assortment and recycling. firstly, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the most associations and courses all over the world are pointed out. an summary of the prevailing battery structures, of the chemical compounds utilized in them and their unsafe houses is made, via a survey of the most important business recycling procedures. the security and potency of such techniques are under pressure. specific attention is given to the published emissions, i.e. to the impression on human overall healthiness and the surroundings. tools for the assessment of this influence are defined. numerous chapters take care of particular battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. for every kind of battery, info are supplied at the collection/recycling technique from the technical, fiscal and environmental perspective. The chemical compounds recoverable from every one approach and remarketable are pointed out. A bankruptcy bargains with convalescing of the massive batteries powering electrical cars, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. the ultimate bankruptcy is dedicated to the real subject of accumulating batteries from used electric and digital gear. The out of control disposal of those units nonetheless containing their batteries contributes to environmental toxins.

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Schuckert et al. 1997, "Life cycle engineering as an environmental management t o o l Comparison of nickel and lead traction battery systems," Materials Solutions for Environmental Problems, Proceedings of the International Symposium sponsored by the Materials Science and Engineering Section of The Metallurgical Society of CIM, 36 th Annual Conference of Metallurgists of the Canadian Institute of Metallurgists, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, August 17-20, 1997. Thornton 1995, "Heavy metal migration in soils and rocks at historical smelting sites," Environmental Geochemistry and Health (1995), 17, pages 127-138.

The Ni-Cd battery technology is hundred years old, but it has been through a significant market development only during the last twenty years. It can be considered, at the human scale, as a young technology we are learning to live with. In the last five years, a decline of the use of Ni-Cd batteries has occurred in low drain applications, while there was a large market development in high drain and safety applications. Consequently, when considering both the past and the medium term future of this technology, it cannot be classified as declining.

A speciality market exist in the aviation sector for engine start-up and emergency electrical power supply. Space and defence represent minor but stable market segments. 3. HOARDING OF PORTABLE RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES In November 2000, a consumer survey was performed on the hoarding (home storage) of portable rechargeable batteries in France. The results are based on 1,010 "face to 44 Figure 5. Industrial Ni-Cd Sales in Europe: Historical Evolution (in each bar, from bottom to top: Railways, UPS, Aviation, EV, Space&Defence) (Source CollectNiCad) face" interviews performed in private households.

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