Universities, Academics and the Great Schism by R. N. Swanson

By R. N. Swanson

The election of either city VI and Clement VII to the papacy in 1378, via an identical physique of cardinals, offered the church with an it appears insoluble constitutional hassle. Dr Swanson examines the response to this case from a hitherto unconsidered viewpoint: that of the colleges to whom Europe became to formulate the theories which might clear up the matter. He examines the makes an attempt through the lecturers to achieve help for his or her numerous schemes and indicates how those produced clash at a number of degrees: in the neighborhood, among factions inside person universities; nationally, among rival universities, and among universities and their ecclesiastical and secular superiors; and the world over, because the universities followed at the same time specific attitudes and sometimnes clashed with their very own popes. The concluding chapters exhibit how the teachers ultimately devised the conciliarist formulation which ended in the convocation of the Council of Pisa in 1409.

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With these manifold differences, the idea of community cannot have been much more than theoretical; nevertheless during the schism, with the 27 28 M. Seidlmayer, Die Anfdnge des grossen abendldndischen Schismas, Spanische Forschungen der Gorresgesellschaft, zweite Reihe, vol. 5 (Miinster, 1940), p . 343. Cobban, The medieval universities, pp. 27-35. 17 The context supra-national authority of the papacy obviously non-existent, and that of the empire undermined not only by the personal incompetence of Wenceslas (and, after 1400, by the appearance of Rupert of the Palatinate as rival King of the Romans), but also by the rise of the territorial monarchies which claimed imperial rights within their own frontiers and thus some sort of jurisdiction over the church, the universities remained the only surviving supra-national community to which any sort of appeal could be made for a solution to what was, essentially, a problem of universalist dimensions.

22. , p . 155; S. Baluzius [ed. G. Mollat], Vitae paparum Avenionensium . . , Paris, 1914-22), vol. 4, p . 255. Their tracts are in BN, MSS Lat. 1469, 1470. Seidlmayer, Anfa'nge, p . 220. , A r m . LIV. 48, on fos 2r, 3r. I have not been able to find the originals. , ArmT~LIVri8, fos 48r~5ir: Allegationes cuiusdam doctoris Salamantini. , fo. 50V: 'Concludo quod licet persona electa sit bona et valens et scientifica persona, quia tamen in eius electionem intervenerunt multa vicia provocata (quod non fuit ex culpa electa sed romanorum), dicta eleccio non tenet de juris rigore nee de bona equitate'.

1, p . 401. 77 ibid. , vol. 1, p . 423. Several exiled academics appear on the rotulus to Clement VII dated for 1388 which is printed in Moreira de Sa, Chartularium, n o . 413. Cartulaire de Vuniversite de Montpellier (2 vols. and supplement, Montpellier, 18901912), vol. 1, p . 580. 34 A matter of loyalty Orleans (as well as Paris) had declared for him against Clement VII,80 but it seems more probable that the Roman pope was actually referring to the not inconsiderable number of supporters which he retained at least in Orleans and Paris during the first years of the dispute.

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