Underwater Investigations: Standard Practice Manual by Kenneth M., Jr. Childs

By Kenneth M., Jr. Childs

This handbook offers counsel for these thinking about underwater structural inspection. It provides instructions representing criteria of perform, documentation and reporting, and administrative issues for numerous inspection varieties, together with new building, baseline, regimen, fix layout, designated, fix development, and postevent inspections. the 1st of a number of large appendices offers directions for the inspection of distinctive underwater constitution varieties, together with bridges, open-piled buildings, gravity and maintaining buildings, marinas, hydraulic buildings, pipelines and conduits, dry docks, locks and gates, floating constructions, breakwaters, tower bases, moorings and anchors, tanks and garage amenities, and cathodic security platforms. next appendices comprise varieties and reasons of defects and deterioration in general present in underwater concrete constructions, metal constructions, wood buildings, masonry buildings, composite structural elements, and undermining and scour; references for acquiring in-depth details at the constitution forms; and an intensive word list of key words.

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Therefore, it is typical to use boring or coring tests to quantify internal deterioration. Bore holes should be filled with oversized treated hardwood dowels, epoxy, or nonshrinking grout. For wooden members that have been repaired by encasement, the Level I and Level II inspections should focus on the evaluation of the integrity of the encasement. Such encasements should not be removed for a routine inspection. However, if evidence of significant deterioration is present on the encasement or on the underlying member despite the encasement, then the evaluation of damage should consider whether the encasement was provided for protection, structural capacity, or both.

TABLE 3-2. Recommended Minimum Scope of Routine Inspections: Inspection Sample Size and Method(s)1 Material Steel Piles Large Elements2 Level Large Elements2 Method I II III 100 10 5 Visual or tactile Visual: Removal of marine growth in 3 bands Remaining thickness measurement; electrical potential measurements; corrosion profiling as necessary I II 100 Every 100 LF Every 200 LF Visual or tactile Visual: Removal of marine growth in 1-SF areas 100 10 0 Visual or tactile Visual: Removal of marine growth in 3 bands NA 100 Every 100 LF 0 Visual or tactile Visual: Removal of marine growth in 1-SF areas III Concrete Piles Sample Size (%) I II III I II III Remaining thickness measurement; electrical potential measurements; corrosion profiling as necessary NA continued on next page SCOPE OF INSPECTION WORK 33 A routine inspection should be limited to the collection of sufficient information to address each of the key objectives.

The sample may be limited to particular zones or portions of the member where damage is suspected, for example, at the mudline/bottom of wrap, or in the tidal SCOPE OF INSPECTION WORK 37 zone. The sample size should be determined on the basis of the physical evidence of potential problems and the aggressiveness of the service environment. A minimum sample size of three members should be used. A 5% sample size, up to 30 total members, may be adequate as an upper limit. On removal of the wrap, the wood should be evaluated using visual or tactile means as well as boring or coring tests as described for nonwrapped wooden elements.

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