Ultrasonography of Muscles and Tendons: Examination by Bruno D. Fornage

By Bruno D. Fornage

Sonography is a perfect real-time imaging strategy for the evaluate of muscle tissues and tendons of the extremities, and this e-book is an invaluable reference for either the means of exam and common ultrasound anatomy. the 1st half considers technical elements of the exam akin to sonographic apparatus, water-path platforms, and dynamic maneuvers. the elemental sonographic styles of ordinary muscle tissue, tendons, and different parts of the extremities are then provided. Emphasis has been put on pitfalls and artifacts. the opposite to be had imaging ideas for muscle tissues and tendons also are mentioned. the second one half includes an atlas of standard ultrasound scans of shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot, with accompanying explanatory line drawings.

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South Med J 1980; 73: 649-651. Egund N, Ekelund L, Sako M, Persson B: CT of soft-tissue tumors. AJR 1981;137:725-729. Ehman RL, Berquist TH: Magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal trauma. Radiol Clin North Am 1986;24:291-319. Engel J, Luboshitz S, Israeli A, Ganel A: Tenography in De Quervain's disease. Hand 1981; 13: 142-146. Fisher MR, Dooms GC, Hricak H, Reinhold C, Higgins CB: Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and pathologic muscular system. Magn Reson Imaging 1986;4:491-496. Fornage B, Touche D, Deshayes JL, Segal Ph: Diagnostic des calcifications du tendon rotulien.

B) The surface of the probe is strictly parallel to the tendon, which now displays a normal echogenicity and fibrillar texture (arrows). P = patella; T = tibia. a b 32 Artifacts and Pitfalls FIGURE 5. 11. 5-MHz probe). The tendon segments that lie oblique to the surface of the probe appear hypoechoic (arrowheads), contrasting with the short echogenic segments that are parallel to the transducer (arrows). Prox- imal to the metacarpophalangeal joint, the tendons lie parallel to the transducer and therefore display their normal echogenicity (open arrows).

5-MHz probes (see Atlas section: Hand). 3. Superficial veins: Superficial veins are visualized only when a standoff pad is used. 7. Transverse scans of the greater saphenous vein near its termination. (a) The vein (arrow) is clearly visualized in subcutaneous soft tissues. (b) A slight pressure on the transducer results in the vein's collapse. caliber varies according to gravity or compression maneuvers. They may collapse under a slight pressure on the probe (Fig. 7). 4. 8. Median nerve. (a) Longitudinal sonogram of the anterior region of the midthird of the forearm.

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