Tropical Mariculture by Sena S. De Silva
By Sena S. De Silva
De Silva has performed a great activity of reviewing the present country of tropical marine aquaculture. I proceed to exploit this paintings as a uncomplicated reference.
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Extra info for Tropical Mariculture
E. climatic, water, soil and biological features) and the environmental conditions under which animals are cultured. The 'environment' includes both natural ecological systems and man-made agro-ecological systems. g. good water supply and drainage systems), short and long-term economic viability of farming operations and investment and market incentives or disincentives, and the marketability of products. The availability of credit often determines how the investments proceed. • Sociocultural aspects - such as the intensity of resource use, population pressures, social and cultural values and aptitudes in relation to aquaculture, social conflicts and consumer perceptions all play an important role.
This deterioration of water quality and sediments in shrimp ponds have been closely Unked, with other factors, for example Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and antibiotic misuse, to the severe 1987-88 production losses (Lin, 1989; Chen, 1990). Despite some recovery in recent years, the industry coUapsed again in 1993 - again poor environmental conditions were blamed (Anon, 1993). In China, production in 1993 may have decUned to 75% of that in 1992, due to problems related to disease outbreaks, Unked to some intensification of culture practices and a reported deterioration in coastal environmental quality (including red tides).
The adoption of a systems approach which gives an emphasis on management of conditions that lead to disease and reduced chemical use is also being promoted - a potentially 'winwin' situation that can be both profitable and maximize environmental benefits. The development of captive broodstock for major farmed shrimp species and then genetic improvements may result in farmers having better quaUty shrimp post-larvae free of and/or resistant to specific pathogens. Pruder et al. (1995) emphasized that sustainabiUty and farm profitability can be achieved by integrating 'high health' shrimp seed with disease control and appropriate farm management practices.