Transition metal reagents and catalysts: innovations in by Jiro Tsuji

By Jiro Tsuji

Organometallic compounds of transition metals play a vital function as reagents and catalysts in natural synthesis. Following up on Professor Tsuji's rather well acquired 1991 quantity, this cutting-edge paintings offers whole assurance of transition steel reagents and catalysts--from heritage thought to business purposes.

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They are more easily available than aryl iodides or tri¯ates. Also, acyl (aroyl) halides 4 and aroyl anhydrides 5 behave as pseudohalides after decarbonylation under certain conditions. Sulfonyl chlorides 6 react with evolution of SO2 . Allylic halides are reactive, but their reactions via p-allyl complexes are treated in Chapter 4. Based on the reactions of those pseudohalides, several benzene derivatives such as aniline, phenol, benzoic acid and benzenesulfonic acid can be used for the reaction, in addition to phenyl halides.

Therefore, this is the indirect substitution of a nitro group with an alkene. It should also be mentioned that some aryl iodides, bromides and phenols, as a source of tri¯ates, are prepared via the diazonium salts 27, and hence the direct Pd-catalysed reactions of the diazonium salts are more convenient in such cases. The styrene derivative 30 is prepared from p-chloroaniline (29) after the diazotization with butyl nitrite in acetic acid under an ethylene atmosphere [19]. Acyl halides undergo the oxidative addition to Pd(0) with or without decarbonylation.

No change of the formal oxidation states of the metals occurs in most of these nucleophilic attacks. However, an exception is palladium in the p-allyl complex 90, Fundamental reactions of transition metal complexes 23 which accepts two electrons by the nucleophilic attack and is reduced to Pd(0) state, directly or indirectly. This process offers the chance of undergoing the oxidative addition again, as shown below. The reduction of the metals is an essential factor for catalytic cycles. Pd is a noble metal and Pd(0) is more stable than Pd(II).

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