The Venture of Islam, Volume 3: The Gunpower Empires and by Marshall G. S. Hodgson

By Marshall G. S. Hodgson

Publish yr note: First released in 1974
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The enterprise of Islam has been commemorated as a magisterial paintings of the brain when you consider that its booklet in early 1975. during this three-volume learn, illustrated with charts and maps, Hodgson lines and translates the historic improvement of Islamic civilization from sooner than the start of Muhammad to the center of the 20th century. This paintings grew out of the well-known direction on Islamic civilization that Hodgson created and taught for a few years on the collage of Chicago.

"This is a nonpareil paintings, not just as a result of its command of its topic but additionally since it demonstrates how, preferably, historical past may be written."— The New Yorker

In this concluding volume of The enterprise of Islam, Hodgson describes the second one flowering of Islam: the Safavi, Timuri, and Ottoman empires. the ultimate a part of the amount analyzes the common Islamic historical past in today's international.

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At the same time, they maintained a solidarity of their own across the empire. There has been no study made of the difference between the Shi'i religious establishment and jWhat had preceded it, but one can suspect that the Shi'i 'ulama' showed at least a specially determined independence. The Shi'i 'ulama' had traditionally been hostile to $ufism, always associated with the ]ama'i-Sunnis; and this hostility seems not to have been much weakened in the days of tariqah Shi'ism. Some insistently Sunni tariqahs were broken up and their pirs exiled, while some tariqahs either had turned sufficiently Shi'i to be at ease with the new allegiance, or put on a Shi'i front, so that they continued to flourish.

With the restoration of some degree of bureaucratic centralization and dynastic stabilization, the typical Islamicate contractualist norms of society generally tended to be altered in tone, if not done away with. Social mobility apparently tended to decrease, at least in some areas. In the Ottoman empire guilds probably became stronger and less flexible than Islamdom had known them before, while in India many Muslims remained organized in castes, though without the full restrictions of Hinduism.

The ~ufl world image continued valid not only for those who would be personally mystics by temperament, but at least as a component in many persons' reading of the Sh1'i world image. But it was no longer so universally accepted as a point of departure for non-mystics who had used the presence of $ufl saints and the Sufi cult for their own varied purposes. For these other purposes-moral discipline, healing, divination, group self-identification, intercession with God, and generally self-orientation in the cosmos-some sort of participation in the Shi'i drama came to be used instead.

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