The Use of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment by Sim Cheng Hua

By Sim Cheng Hua

This e-book presents helpful creation to developed wetlands. It goals to elevate know-how in their price between environmental execs.

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Organic Nitrogen ⇔ NH4 + Biological denitrification - This process involves the removal of Nitrate by conversion to Nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions. Several genera of heterotrophic bacteria which are capable of Nitrate reduction include Achromobacter, Aerobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Flavobactrium, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Spirillum. Two steps are involved in this process. The first step is the conversion of Nitrate to Nitrite and will be followed by the production of Nitric Oxide, Nitrous Oxide and Nitrogen gas.

Reduction - Phosphorus is reduced to gaseous Hydrogen Phosphides (Phosphine and Diphosphine) under anaerobic conditions by some strains of anaerobes and subsequently release to the atmosphere. Sorption - Phosphorus sorption is controlled by the interaction of redox potential, pH, Fe, Al and Ca minerals. Inorganic P is retained by Fe and Al oxides and hydroxides, calcite and organometallic complexes where Phosphate displaces water or hydoxyls from the surface of Fe and Al hydrous oxides to form monodentate and binuclear complexes within the coordination sphere of the hydrous oxide.

Organic Nitrogen ⇔ NH4 + Biological denitrification - This process involves the removal of Nitrate by conversion to Nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions. Several genera of heterotrophic bacteria which are capable of Nitrate reduction include Achromobacter, Aerobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Flavobactrium, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Spirillum. Two steps are involved in this process. The first step is the conversion of Nitrate to Nitrite and will be followed by the production of Nitric Oxide, Nitrous Oxide and Nitrogen gas.

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