The Trophic Cascade in Lakes by Stephen R. Carpenter, James F. Kitchell
By Stephen R. Carpenter, James F. Kitchell
During this ebook, a multidisciplinary study crew exams this concept by means of manipulating entire lakes experimentally, and coordinating this with paleolimnological experiences, simulation modeling, and small-scale enclosure experiments. members describe results of predator-prey interactions, behavioral responses of fishes, diel vertical migration of zooplankton, plankton group swap, fundamental creation, nutrient biking and microbial approaches. Paleolimnological suggestions let the reconstruction of trophic interactions from earlier a long time. customers for examining the interplay of nutrition net constitution and nutrient enter in lakes are explored.
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Extra info for The Trophic Cascade in Lakes
18] The ratio of present to past production is X(t)IX(t-\) = [X(t- \)}*-i[a(t)]aM. 19] This ratio depends linearly on aM. aM is 1 when M = 0 (manipulation 'off) and a when M= 1 (manipulation 'on'). Therefore a is the factor by which X is increased or decreased by manipulation. , 1989). RIA derived from the 'before-after-control-impact' experimental design of Stewart-Oaten et al. (1986). RIA begins with time series for both manipulated and reference ecosystems (Fig. 5). A time series of differences between lakes is calculated, and the mean interlake differences before and after manipulation are determined.
Limings were apparent during our studies. 2). Details of the limings and fish manipulations that antedated our study are provided by Kitchell & Kitchell (1980), Elser et al. (19866), Leavitt, Carpenter & Kitchell (1989), and Chapter 15. By 1980, thefishcommunities of Paul and Peter Lakes consisted of dense populations of largemouth bass. 5 km from Paul and Peter Lakes (Fig. 1). Prior to initiation of our research, Tuesday Lake had been studied intermittently since 1956 (Schmitz, 1958; UNDA, 1988).
All three lakes exhibit the hyperboloid geometry typical of kettle lakes (Carpenter, 1983). The lake water has a low ion content. Paul and Tuesday Lakes are mildly acidic, whereas Peter Lake is circumneutral because of its long history of liming. All three lakes have higher conductivities in the hypolimnion, suggestive of spring meromixis. 3): a reciprocal exchange of fish assemblages between Peter and Tuesday Lakes in 1985; reversal of the manipulation in Tuesday Lake beginning in 1987; and a series of planktivore additions to Peter Lake beginning in 1988.