The Sun from Space by Kenneth R. Lang (auth.)

By Kenneth R. Lang (auth.)

This quantity is a finished, updated account of sun astrophysics and the way our conception and information of this celebrity have advanced as mankind has elucidated ever extra of its mysteries. The emphasis of this second edition of The sunlight from Space is at the final decade, including the findings of the SOHO, Ulysses, and Yohkoh sunlight spacecraft missions over a complete 11-year cycle of sun task, the result of the RHESSI sunlight spacecraft introduced in this period, the early findings of the lately introduced Hinode and STEREO sunlight spacecraft, and the ACE and Wind spacecraft that stretch our investigations of the solar to its various enter to Earth during the last ten years.

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Html The Magnetic Field Experiment measures the interplanetary vector magnetic field. html The SMS instrument consists of three different sensors: the Solar Wind Ion Spectrometer (SWICS), the High Mass Resolution Spectrometer (MASS), and the Supra-Thermal Ion Composition Spectrometer (STICS). Their combined data determine the composition of the solar wind and of solar and interplanetary energetic particles. edu/wind/ The Solar Wind Experiment measures the velocity distribution functions of electrons, protons and helium ions within the solar wind.

Plots of the solar wind speed as a function of solar latitude, obtained from two orbits of the Ulysses spacecraft (top panels). The north and south poles of the Sun are at the top and bottom of each plot, the solar equator is located along the middle, and the velocities are in units of kilometers per second, abbreviated km s−1 . The sunspot numbers (bottom panel) indicate that the first orbit (top left) occurred near a minimum in the 11-year solar activity cycle, and that the second orbit (top right) spanned a maximum in activity.

Loops of closed magnetic fields constrain and suspend the hot million-degree gas within coronal loops and cooler material in prominences Driven by motions inside the Sun, and rooted in the photosphere, the coronal loops rise, fall, move sideways, and interact, carrying energy with them. Their concentration varies with the 11-year solar activity cycle, delineated by the number of sunspots and bright coronal loops joining them. Some of the magnetism is even carried into interplanetary space by the Sun’s intense winds, providing channels for the flow of energetic particles and modulating the effects of space weather.

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