The SQUID Handbook: Applications of SQUIDs and SQUID by John Clarke, Alex I. Braginski
By John Clarke, Alex I. Braginski
This two-volume instruction manual deals a entire and coordinated presentation of SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices), together with gadget basics, layout, know-how, process building and a number of functions. it truly is meant to bridge the distance among basics and functions, and should be a beneficial textbook reference for graduate scholars and for execs engaged in SQUID learn and engineering. it is going to even be of use to experts in a number of fields of useful SQUID purposes, from human mind learn and center diagnostics to aircraft and nuclear plant trying out to prospecting for oil, minerals and buried ordnance.
whereas the 1st quantity offers the speculation and fabrication of SQUIDs, the second one quantity is dedicated to functions. It starts off with an enormous point of the research of measured magnetic indications generated by way of present resources (the inverse problem), and contains a number of chapters dedicated to numerous components of program, specifically biomagnetism (research on and diagnostics of human mind, center, liver, etc.), detection of super susceptible signs, for instance electromagnetic radiation and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
the amount closes with a bankruptcy on movement detectors and the detection of gravity waves.
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Extra resources for The SQUID Handbook: Applications of SQUIDs and SQUID Systems, Volume II
7 dB above the (nearly white) noise at 432 MHz. This peak contains contributions from the Nyquist noise of the resonant circuit and from the system noise of the SQUID amplifier. Although it is not entirely straightforward to separate these contributions, using the following approximate argument one can show that this result is consistent with the measured noise temperature. On resonance, since the microstrip reduces Q of the resonant circuit to approximately half of its unloaded value, the source impedance presented to the microstrip is roughly equal to the characteristic impedance of the microstrip.
34) We have set VU = R/L. From Eqs. 34), we see that it is advantageous to use a tuned circuit tuned untuned < Emin , that is, with ki ~ 1, provided Emin f0 Q > VU =16p . 35) For VU ~2 1010 s–1, this result implies that it is desirable to use a tuned circuit only if f0Q > 400 MHz. For frequencies of a few megahertz, this implies a tuned circuit with Q of a few hundred, which is generally realistic. 25 Hz – and one should clearly use an untuned circuit. The crossover from untuned to tuned circuits is likely to occur around 1 MHz, at which frequency a more careful evaluation of the untuned case would be warranted.
8 The Quantum Limit At signal frequencies greater than kBT/h, one expects quantum effects to become important. 4). We briefly discuss quantum effects in Josephson junctions and SQUIDs. 1), quantum effects become significant when hfJ > kBT, where fJ = 2eV/h is the Josephson frequency and V is the time-averaged voltage across the junction. In this limit, one replaces the spectral density of the current noise in the shunt resistor with (2hfJ/R) coth(hfJ/2kBT) [26, 27]. In the limit hfJ >> kBT this spectral density reduces to 2hfJ/R, representing the zero-point fluctuations of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators with random phases.