The Spiritual Franciscans: From Protest to Persecution in by David Burr

By David Burr

While Saint Francis of Assisi died in 1226, he left in the back of an order already suffering to take care of its identification. because the Church known as upon Franciscans to be bishops, professors, and inquisitors, their kind of existence started to swap. a few within the order lamented this alteration and insisted on gazing the stern poverty practiced via Francis himself. Others have been extra open to compromise. through the years, this department developed right into a real rift, as those that argued for strict poverty have been marginalized in the order.

In this booklet, David Burr deals the 1st complete background of the so-called religious Franciscans, a protest flow in the Franciscan order. Burr indicates that the flow existed kind of as a faithful competition within the past due 13th century, yet through 1318 Pope John XXII and leaders of the order had mixed to strength it past the bounds of legitimacy. At that time the unswerving competition became a heretical circulate and recalcitrant friars have been despatched to the stake.

Although a lot has been written approximately person non secular Franciscan leaders, there was no normal heritage of the flow considering the fact that 1932. Few everyone is outfitted to take on the voluminous documentary list and digest the sheer mass of study generated via Franciscan students within the final century. Burr, one of many world's prime professionals at the Franciscans, has given us a booklet that may outline the sector for years yet to come.

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Salimbene mentions the multa magnalia that he and other young friars at Siena heard from Bernard Quintavalle. 50 Who besides Salimbene was paying attention to the companions in the 1240s, though? Obviously Celano was. That II Celano should have included so much criticism is highly significant, since Celano himself was obviously considered a responsible, respectable member of the order or else he would not have been given the assignment of writing the two legenda. On the other hand, the fact that the respectable Celano included such criticisms in his work suggests that stating such reservations did not mark one as beyond the pale by that point.

The first tells us that one element was unhappy about the course the order was taking, but it does not tell us how large that element was or what kind of audience it commanded. Certainly the Leo materials commanded a substantial audience over 24 P ROTOSPIRITUALS time, since not only Angelo and Ubertino but also the French spiritual Franciscan spokesman, Petrus Iohannis Olivi, cited them. Moreover, once we turn from documents to oral tradition, we can envisage an even wider audience for Leo’s (and the rest of the companions’) thoughts on the order.

It was his Joachism that destroyed him. If, like Salimbene, he had confessed his mistake, the brothers would have forgiven him. Moreover, Salimbene assumes that what needed refurbishing was not the order but the 31 T HE S PIRITUAL F RANCISCANS Roman curia. There is no mention of any polarization in the order that led John to despair of reforming it. One might object that Salimbene himself has his limitations as a witness, since he never has been accused of showing any great interest in emulating the rigors of primitive Franciscanism.

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