The Smart Grid: Enabling Energy Efficiency and Demand by Clark W. Gellings
By Clark W. Gellings
The ability method has frequently been brought up because the maximum and most intricate laptop ever outfitted, but it truly is predominantly a mechanical approach. applied sciences and clever platforms at the moment are to be had which could considerably increase the general performance of strength distribution and make it able to meet the wishes of the twenty first century. This e-book explains how sensors, communications applied sciences, computational skill, keep an eye on, and suggestions mechanisms could be successfully mixed to create this new, consistently adjusting "smart grid" process. It presents an figuring out of either IntelliGridSM structure and EnergyPortSM in addition to how you can combine clever platforms to accomplish the ambitions of reliability, fee containment, strength potency in energy construction and supply, and end-use power potency.
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Air-cooled condensers are sometimes used because they require much less maintenance than cooling towers and have lower installation costs. They can also be desirable in areas of the country where water is scarce and/or water and water treatment costs are high since they do not depend on water for cooling. The efficiency of water heaters is measured with a quantity called the energy factor (EF). Higher EF values equate to more efficient water heaters. , 2008). Since there are no flame or stack losses in electric units, the major factor affecting the efficiency of electric water heaters is the standby loss incurred through the tank walls and from piping.
Even short feeder lines where customers have long secondary feeders result in large perceived voltage drops. In order to reduce these complaints, utilities need to invest in additional equipment such as capacitors or rework secondary systems to shorten the secondary conductors. Utilities also regard their service territories and load characteristics as unique and tend not to share information about distribution voltage practices. Because most of the United States is not presently capacityconstrained, many utilities plan to reduce voltages only during system emergencies or for just a few peak days during the year.
Com), by employing adjustable speed drives (inverter technologies) on centrifugal pumps and fans instead of throttling or using inlet guide vanes, the energy bill can be reduced by as much as 60%. S. designed technologies have survived the rigors of competition. They are as follows: • • • Current-source inverter Modified load commutated inverter (modified LCI) Current-source gate turn-off thyristor-pulse-width modulated (GTO-PWM) Of these three, the latter two are still being successfully sold for large motors (2000 HP and larger).