The Pediatric Upper Extremity by Joshua M. Abzug, Scott H. Kozin, Dan A. Zlotolow
By Joshua M. Abzug, Scott H. Kozin, Dan A. Zlotolow
Sub-specialization inside pediatric orthopedics is growing to be, partly as a result of the improvement of free-standing kid's hospitals and the need via sufferers and their mom and dad to have "experts" deal with them. we're on the vanguard of a pattern in physicians classifying themselves as pediatric top extremity surgeons. quite a few pediatric hospitals now have or are recruiting physicians to concentration their perform during this sector. traditionally, those matters have been taken care of by means of basic orthopedic surgeons, grownup hand surgeons, pediatric orthopedic surgeons, or plastic surgeons. notwithstanding, none of those pros deal with everything of pediatric higher extremity pathology, and no unmarried reference has occupied with the therapy of the pediatric top extremity as an entire. for instance, fractures have quite often been written approximately in pediatric textbooks, whereas tendon and nerve accidents are lined in grownup hand textbooks. This textbook is a finished, illustrated reference that discusses all features of the pediatric higher extremity, from embryology and useful improvement to nerve accidents, trauma, tumors, burns, activities accidents and more.
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Additional resources for The Pediatric Upper Extremity
The growth cone contains numerous highly motile ﬁlopodia that interact extensively with local cues within the developing limb that progressively guide the axon to its ﬁnal target. Inability of the axon to reach its target muscle results in neuronal cell death. For each individual muscle, multiple axons compete to establish innervation with apoptosis of the neurons unable to establish a connection. The number of neurons that establishes a connection and survives correlates with the size of the muscle, with one neuron eventually becoming the dominant one.
19 19 19 20 Extrinsic Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH) Classiﬁcation System . . . . 20 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Chen (*) • A. M. Abzug et al. 1007/978-1-4614-8515-5_1 Developmental biology has greatly contributed to the understanding of upper limb development.
H. Chen (*) • A. M. Abzug et al. 1007/978-1-4614-8515-5_1 Developmental biology has greatly contributed to the understanding of upper limb development. Whereas early understanding of limb development centered on morphological change during organogenesis, current emphasis is on discovery of molecular signaling mechanisms that drive the remarkable transformation of single cells into fully functioning limbs and the human body. These discoveries have laid a foundation for fundamental embryology-based concepts that have reshaped the way congenital limb differences are conceptualized, with the ability to trace a phenotype back to single genes, and, conversely, the ability to predict developmental differences from single-gene mutations.