The Origins of the Koran: Classic Essays on Islam’s Holy by Ibn Warraq

By Ibn Warraq

This quantity rejects the idea that Islam's sacred textual content is errors loose and can't be significantly evaluated. The research of the Koran needs to strengthen and mature. students of Islam are after all accustomed to the book's many error and contradictions, yet those inherent flaws have infrequently been printed to a much broader public. "The Origins of the Koran" is an try to treatment this deficiency via bringing jointly vintage severe essays which elevate key matters surrounding Islam's holy e-book. Divided into 4 components, this significant anthology starts with Theodor Noldeke's first really medical examine of the Koran. half specializes in the trouble of creating a competent Koranic textual content, whereas half 3 examines the Jewish, Christian, and Zoroastrian assets of Muhammad's 'revelation'. half 4 is a attention of the arguable interpretations of up to date pupil John Wansbrough, who questions the old reliability of the earliest Islamic assets. This fabulous assortment, including extra choices from Leone Caetani, Arthur Jeffery, David Margoliouth, Andrew Rippin, C C Torrey, and extra, will turn out quintessential to students and all these attracted to the textual underpinning of 1 of the quickest starting to be religions on the earth.

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The hundred or so civilians killed by a stray Israeli bomb in southern Lebanon during the Israeli operation there in spring, 1996. 4. The continued bombings by the United States and Britain of Iraqi targets in the no-flight zone established there in the aftermath of the Gulf War. 5. The retaliatory raids by Israel, using American-made weapons, against Palestinian targets. 6. Al-Risalah, 13 September 2001. Cited (in Hebrew) by MEMRI, Terror in America, No. 1. The MEMRI series, Terror in America, began on 11 September 2001.

Jihad is usually viewed as a collective duty (fard kifaya), binding the Muslim community at large, the umma, as a whole. Namely, when the Muslim authorities-that-be pursue jihad, every Muslim individual is thereby viewed as having discharged his duty. The duty to fight jihad is universal and perpetual until the entire world comes under Muslim dominion. However, because Muslim countries have desisted in practice, under various theological and practical considerations, from this idea, which otherwise would have permanently pitted them against the rest of the world, Muslim fundamentalists have come to take this duty as a personal one (fard ’ayn), and so have consecrated any struggle of theirs against Unbelievers as a pursuit of that holy duty.

One of their devices for walking the tightrope between popular resentment and their inability to respond to the American challenge to join the world war against terrorism is their attempt to draw distinctions between various kinds of terrorism. Theirs is considered, of course, ‘national liberation’, while moves of self-defence by the United States, Israel, or any country that does not toe their line, is ‘state terrorism’, or simply ‘true terrorism’. 32 All this rhetoric can be simply construed, however, as the third stage in Arab and Islamic reactions to the horror of 11 September.

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