The multifunctional gut of fish by Martin Grosell, Anthony P. Farrell, Colin J. Brauner
By Martin Grosell, Anthony P. Farrell, Colin J. Brauner
The Multifunctional intestine of Fish presents a finished synthesis and an integrative review of the diversity of intestine features and their implications for organismal body structure. The hugely assorted anatomy and features of the intestine, together with nutrient uptake, immune barrier functionality, salt and water homeostasis and breathing, in addition to neuroendocrine activities and regulate are coated intimately by way of top authors. additionally, this quantity explores the said implications of intestine functionality for entire animal integrative body structure and compensatory calls for for non-gastrointestinal organs. because the first complete connection with talk about the varied morphological and sensible diversifications of the intestine, this quantity offers a superb source for comparative physiologists, aquaculturists and biomedical researchers making use of fish as version organisms for mammalian body structure. contains chapters devoted to anatomical and useful gains of the gastro-intestinal tract of fish in addition to integrative facets of intestine organ functionality. comprises intensive insurance of lately well-known implications of feeding on salt homeostasis and acid-base stability. presents syntheses of implications of intestine functionality for homeostasis. crucial textual content for these drawn to the large range of services played by way of the intestine.
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Extra resources for The multifunctional gut of fish
A barrier to protect gastric epithelium against the effects of acid also requires maintenance (Allen and Flemstro¨m 2005). There are, however, no estimates of the energetic costs of gastric digestion in fishes. Even in vertebrates the only example is the Burmese python (Secor 2009); however, the lack of a significant effect of inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the proton pumb inhibitor omeprazole on specific dynamic action (SDA) suggests it is minor (Andrade et al. 2004). g. 7Â basal metabolic rate (BMR) in L.
8A). The current model argues that the initiation of gut histodifferentiation lies in the endodermal expression of Cdx2 (Stringer et al. 2008). The Wnt signaling is active in the prospective mesoderm, but when suppressed by mesenchyme Barx1-mediated expression gives rise to the stomach epithelium identity (Kim et al. 2005). The cross-talk between Cdx2 and Barx1 results in the final gut phenotype (Stringer et al. 2008; Fig. 8A). Supporting this model, in mice the overexpression of sFRPs overrides Barx1 deficiency leading to the inhibition of Wnt signaling (Kim et al.
Specification of the stomach requires the transient signal of the homeodomain protein Barx1 (Kim et al. 2005; Fig. 8A). In mice, the expression is localized to the presumptive stomach mesenchyme and leads to the expression of two Wingless (Wnt) antagonists, sFRP1 and sFRP2 (Kim et al. 2005; Fig. 8A). Thus, Barx1-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in the endoderm is the central mechanism for the development of the gastric epithelium (Kim et al. 2005, 2007; Fig. 8A). As for the epithelium of the intestine, the main role is played by the homeodomain protein Cdx2 (Stringer et al.