Synthetic Methods of Organic Chemistry by Theilheimer W.

By Theilheimer W.

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This is primarily the case for aromatic alcohols, including phenols, that are substituted with electron-withdrawing substituents. 0, is present primarily (> 99%) as pentachloro-phenolate anion. As will be discussed in detail in Chapter 8 and in Part 111, such charged species have very different properties and reactivities as compared to their neutral counterparts. , alkyl groups), may be oxidized in the environment, leading to a variety of products (Chapters 14 and 16). , DBPC, Fig. 15) in petroleum products, rubber, plastics, food packages, animal feeds, and so on (Kirk-Othmer, 1992).

Reactions which involve the transfer of electrons between different chemical species are generally referred to as redox reactions. Such reactions form the basis for the energy production of all organisms. From this point of view we can consider organic compounds as energy sources. Oxidation State of the Atoms in an Organic Molecule When dealing with transformation reactions, it is important to know whether electrons have been transferred between the reactants. For evaluating the number of electrons transferred, it is convenient to examine the (formal) oxidation states of all atoms involved in the reaction.

The classical organochlorine pesticides, p,p'-DDT, HCB, and HCH; see Fig. , 1998). , 2000). Finally, we should note that large amounts of known and unknown chlorinated compounds are formed and released to the environment due to the use of chlorine in waste and drinking water disinfection, and in bleaching processes in the pulp and paper industry. Important in this group are, for example, the trihalomethanes (THMs; CHCl,, CHBrCl,, CHBr2C1,and CHBr,). Oxygen-ContainingFunctional Groups Among the heteroatoms present in natural and anthropogenic organic compounds, oxygen plays a unique role because it is part of a large number of important functional groups.

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