Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials by John B. West MD PhD
By John B. West MD PhD
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Extra resources for Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials
Next, we distinguish between diffusion- and perfusionlimited gases. Oxygen uptake along the pulmonary capillary is then analyzed, and there is a section on the measurement of diffusing capacity using carbon monoxide. The ﬁnite reaction rate of oxygen with hemoglobin is conveniently considered with diffusion. Finally, there is a brief reference to the interpretation of measurements of diffusing capacity and possible limitations of carbon dioxide diffusion. indd d 24 24 6/18/2011 6/18/ 8/2 /2011 9:49:15 9:49:15 AM Diffusion 25 In the last chapter, we looked at how gas is moved from the atmosphere to the alveoli, or in the reverse direction.
Drugs that can relax smooth muscle in the pulmonary circulation include acetylcholine and isoproterenol. Pulmonary Vascular Resistance • Is normally very small • Decreases on exercise because of recruitment and distension of capillaries • Increases at high and low lung volumes • Increases with alveolar hypoxia because of constriction of small pulmonary arteries ▲ Measurement of Pulmonary Blood Flow . The volume of blood passing through the lungs each minute (Q ) can be calculated. using the Fick principle.
For these reasons, the term transfer factorr is sometimes used (particularly in Europe) to emphasize that the measurement does not solely reﬂ ﬂect the diffusion properties of the lung. ▲ CO2 Transfer Across the Pulmonary Capillary We have seen that diffusion of CO2 through tissue is about 20 times faster than that of O2 because of the much higher solubility of CO2 (Figure 3-1). At ﬁrst sight, therefore, it seems unlikely that CO2 elimination could be affected ﬁ by diffusion difﬁculties, ﬁ and indeed, this has been the general belief.