Remediation engineering : design concepts by Suthan S Suthersan

By Suthan S Suthersan

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17) Kd = partitioning coefficient foc = percentage of fraction of organic carbon in soils Koc = organic carbon partitioning coefficient. 0%. 1%), adsorption to mineral grains may be dominant. Researchers have evaluated a number of parameters for estimating Koc values based on fundamental properties of the contaminant. One of the easiest way of obtaining Koc is from the octanol–water partitioning coefficient (Kow) of the contaminant. The Kow of a contaminant describes the partitioning between water (a polar phase) and octanol (a nonpolar phase).

However, upon reaching the water table, the NAPL begins to “pancake” and thus spreads in all directions. In the case of a large release, NAPL may be observed at considerable distances upgradient. As discussed previously, a significant vapor phase develops in the unsaturated zone following release of contaminants with high vapor pressures. Formation of the vapor phase is a function of volatilization from the parent NAPL, from the coated soil, and from the dissolved phase groundwater compartments.

The airflow velocity due to the pressure gradient can be expressed by Darcy’s law when the slip flow is negligible. In the case of airflow in sand and gravel, the slippage of air on the soil wall is negligible and Darcy’s law for the flow in porous media can be applied. 2) Ka = the air permeability tensor ma = viscosity of air. The density of air is a function of pressure and temperature. The relationship among these parameters is expressed by the equation of state. One of these equations of state is the ideal gas flow, which is simple and applicable for soil air at low pressure.

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