Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up: by William E Lee, Michael I Ojovan, Carol M Jantzen
By William E Lee, Michael I Ojovan, Carol M Jantzen
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Extra info for Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up: Processes, technologies and international experience
2008). 1 m3 of material containing less than 400 kBq of beta/ gamma activity or single items containing less than 40 kBq. Containing radioactive materials other than those suitable for disposal with ordinary refuse, but not exceeding 4 GBq/te of alpha or 12 GBq/te of beta/gamma activity – that is, wastes which can be accepted for authorised disposal at Drigg, Dounreay or other landfill sites by controlled burial. Wastes with radioactivity levels exceeding the upper boundaries for LLW, but which do not need heating to be taken into account in the design of storage or disposal facilities.
The amount of waste arising from decommissioning a typical NPP is 10,000–15,000 tonnes. Much of this waste is concrete and other building material containing only small amounts of radioactivity. About a tenth of the decommissioning waste contains some radioactivity up to the intermediate level. 3 Research reactors Many institutions worldwide installed small reactors in support of research and development programmes. Research reactors provide a wide range of training, research, commercial and nuclear power programme support functions from nuclear reactors which are generally not used for power generation.
L E E, Imperial College London, UK and M. I. 3 Abstract: Classification systems for the types of radioactive waste (RAW) are described along with sources of controlled wastes (including from power production, military programmes, medical uses and research reactors) and uncontrolled or accidental releases. Options for managing controlled wastes from pretreatment, treatment, conditioning and storage stages through to transportation to final disposal are considered. Immobilisation (wasteform), temporary storage and permanent disposal options including near surface, deep and very deep geological disposal are covered as well as strategies for uncontrolled releases.