Quaternary of Scotland by D.G. Sutherland J.E. Gordon

By D.G. Sutherland J.E. Gordon

In describing the geomorphological background of Scotland, this quantity bargains a striking account of the way the ordinary surroundings replied by way of landforms, procedures and plant groups, to critical climatic swap because the Quaternary period advanced during the last million years.
This legacy, as preserved within the 138 nationally very important GCR websites defined, records a extraordinary variety of landforms in a comparatively small quarter. The rugged highland distinction with the rolling hills and flat plains came across extra south, whereas the western and northerly islands, including the highly-indented beach upload extra to the scenic range. How this number of landscapes got here into being, the forces which formed it , and the climatic extremes which drove it, are the topics explored during this volume.

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E. Gordon, unpublished data). 6). They comprise peats, lacustrine sediments and palaeosols, and a small number have been found in association with mammal remains. They are rarely of any great thickness and almost all have been truncated by erosion. Some are considered to have been deposited during interglacials, others during interstadials. The best preserved interglacial deposit is possibly also the oldest, a peat at Fugla Ness in Shetland. This has a clear thermophilous vegetational succession and macrofossils of trees have been recovered from the peat.

These may have formed during the Early Devensian, if the attribution of the weathering of the underlying till to the Ipswichian is correct. Other putative Early Devensian periglacial deposits are those immediately overlying the possible Ipswichian palaeo sol at Teindland, those at the base of the Castle Hill sequence at Gardenstown (Sutherland, 1984b), the sediments of the Moy Paraglacial Complex overlying the AlIt Odhar interstadial peat (Merritt, 1990c) and those overlying the possible Ipswichian peat at Toa Galson on the North-west Coast of Lewis (Sutherland and Walker, 1984).

Subsequently, glacial cycles had a dominant periodicity of about 100,000 years and total ice volume at the glacial maxima was greater than previously. As will be discussed below, subsequent to this first glaciation the North Sea Basin was invaded by Scottish ice on at least five separate occasions. Correlation of the Early Pleistocene low sea-level events discussed above with periods of more limited glaciation on land (and by implication in the Highlands of Scotland) suggests at least three periods of such limited glaciation during the Early Pleistocene.

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