Pioneer odyssey by William Swindell, Eric Burgess, Richard O. Fimmel

By William Swindell, Eric Burgess, Richard O. Fimmel

"Pioneer 10 is the 1st spacecraft to fly past the orbit of Mars and during the Asteroid belt, it made the 1st sequence of "in situ" measurements of Jupiter's setting, it supplied the 1st close-up photographs of the large planet and eventually, Pioneer 10 is the 1st man-made item to go away the sunlight procedure. Pioneer eleven is the 1st spacecraft to fly to the ringed planet Saturn."--Foreword.

summary: "Pioneer 10 is the 1st spacecraft to fly past the orbit of Mars and during the Asteroid belt, it made the 1st sequence of "in situ" measurements of Jupiter's setting, it supplied the 1st close-up photos of the enormous planet and eventually, Pioneer 10 is the 1st man-made item to go away the sun process. Pioneer eleven is the 1st spacecraft to fly to the ringed planet Saturn."--Foreword

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And the great turmoil in Jupiter's processes, coupled with the high speed of planetary rotation, provides an extreme model for the study of jet streams and weather in quieter planetary atmospheres such as the Earth's. The satellites of Jupiter represent a veritable Solar System in miniature, even to the densities of the satellites, like the planets, decreasing with distance from the central body. Thus, their for20 mation may have paralleled the formation of the Solar System. Astronomers are questioning whether these satellites are Earth-like planetary bodies, or more like giant snowballs.

Controllers and scientists watch for any need to change bias voltages to adjust range or sensitivity of instruments or to switch modes of operation. When each Pioneer reached the outskirts of the Jovian system, quick action again became the order of the day. But this was quite different action from the Earth launch phase. ) away, radio signals took 92 minutes for the round trip to the spacecraft and back. All command actions had to be planned well in advance because of this delay. The most critical item of equipment, in this respect, was the scientific instrument known as the imaging photopolarimeter or IPP for short.

Ascertains the distribution of dust particles in interplanetary space. * Determines the size, mass, flux, and velocity of small particles in the asteroid belt and thus provides information on the possible hazard to a spacecraft passing through this belt. Within the Jovian system, each Pioneer performs another series of experiments: * Maps the Jovian magnetic field: its intensity, direction, and structure. * Determines how many electrons and protons of various energies are distributed along the trajectory of the spacecraft through the Jovian magnetosphere.

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