Physics, Formation And Evolution Of Rotating Stars by Andre Maeder

By Andre Maeder

Rotation is ubiquitous at every one step of stellar evolution, from megastar formation to the ultimate levels, and it impacts the process evolution, the timescales and nucleosynthesis. Stellar rotation is usually a necessary prerequisite for the prevalence of Gamma-Ray Bursts.

In this ebook the writer completely examines the fundamental mechanical and thermal results of rotation, their impression on mass loss through stellar winds, the consequences of differential rotation and its linked instabilities, the relation with magnetic fields and the evolution of the inner and floor rotation. extra, he discusses the various observational signatures of rotational results bought from spectroscopy and interferometric observations, in addition to from chemical abundance determinations, helioseismology and asteroseismology, etc.

On an introductory point, this ebook provides in a didactical manner the elemental options of stellar constitution and evolution in "track 1" chapters. the opposite extra really expert chapters shape a complicated path at the graduate point and should additional function a useful reference paintings for pro astrophysicists.

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The energy conservation implies that the gain of energy in the mass M per unit of time is equal to the energy produced minus the energy which escapes through the surface Σ per unit of time, M 0 M dq dm = dt 0 ε dm − Σ F · dσ . 31) ε is the energy produced per unit of time and mass, it is called the energy generation rate (in W kg−1 or in erg g−1 s−1 ). The second term on the right is the flux of energy through the surface, generally this is the radiative flux; however, some mechanical energy may also be present in some stars.

As the stellar radii change with M and Z, the relations of the velocities v with respect to ω are evidently different for the different masses and metallicities (in addition account is also given to the small effect of the change of the polar radius for the different M and Z, as mentioned above). The critical velocities for the most massive stars, where radiation pressure effects are large, are discussed in Sect. 4. 20) where GM/R2p,crit is the gravity at the pole at break-up. 0. Angle between g eff and r: On the surface of a rotating star, the normal to the surface does not coincide with the direction of the vector radius (it coincides only at the pole and equator).

3 Slow Contraction, the Kelvin–Helmholtz Timescale Let us consider the slow contraction of a star. 28). Thus, during contraction the Virial theorem is satisfied. This implies a change : R −→ (R − Δ R), a decrease of the potential energy Ω : Δ Ω < 0, an increase of the internal energy U : U → (U + Δ U), with Δ U > 0. The Virial theorem relates the changes Δ U and Δ Ω . We may consider either the general case with Γ1 or the case of a perfect gas with γg , which is appropriate for star formation. Let us write the theorem like ΔU = 1 (−Δ Ω ) .

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