Organic Chemistry I For Dummies (2nd Edition) by Arthur Winter

By Arthur Winter

Publish yr note: First released July eighth 2005 (1st Edition)
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The effortless solution to take the confusion out of natural chemistry

Organic chemistry has a long-standing recognition as a tough path. Organic Chemistry I For Dummies takes an easy method of the subject, permitting you to understand techniques at your personal pace.

This enjoyable, easy-to-understand consultant explains the elemental ideas of natural chemistry in basic terms, supplying perception into the language of natural chemists, the key periods of compounds, and best hassle spots. You'll additionally get the nuts and bolts of tackling natural chemistry difficulties, from realizing the place to begin to recognizing sneaky tips that professors wish to incorporate.
• Refreshed instance equations
• New reasons and useful examples that mirror today's instructing methods
• absolutely worked-out natural chemistry problems

Baffled by way of benzines? stressed by means of carboxylic acids? Here's the assistance you need—in simple English!

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Additional info for Organic Chemistry I For Dummies (2nd Edition)

Sample text

Figure 2-21: Ethylene. To determine the orbital picture for ethylene, first you want to determine the hybridization of each of the atoms. Because both carbons have three substituents (that is, each is attached to three other atoms), both of these atoms are sp2 hybridized (refer to Table 2-2). This means that each carbon has three sp2 orbitals plus one p orbital available for bonding. Hydrogen is not hybridized and, thus, has just the 1s orbital available for bonding. Hydrogen is the only atom that does not hybridize its orbitals for bonding, because it only has one valence orbital, the 1s orbital.

For bonding, the valence electrons are the most important, so you most often ignore the core electrons (the ones in the inner shells), because they don’t participate in bonding. Instead, you focus entirely on the electrons in the valence shell. To Share or Not to Share: Ionic and Covalent Bonding Understanding the different kinds of bonding in molecules is important because the nature of the different bonds in a molecule often determines how the molecule will react. The two big categories of bonding are ionic bonding, in which the two electrons in a bond are not shared between the bonding atoms, and covalent bonding, in which the two electrons in a bond are shared between the two bonding atoms — and these classifications represent the extremes in bonding.

This desire of atoms to imitate the noble gases provides the driving force for many reactions. So, why do atoms want to imitate the noble gases? What makes these particular atoms so attractive? The answer is their electronic structure. The noble gases are the only atoms that have their outermost shells filled with electrons, while all other atoms have shells that are only partially filled. And because a filled shell of electrons is the most stable possible electron configuration, it’s always in style to have a full shell.

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