Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles by Peter S. Liss, Martin T. Johnson
By Peter S. Liss, Martin T. Johnson
The oceans and surroundings engage via a number of strategies, together with the move of momentum, warmth, gases and debris. during this e-book prime foreign specialists come jointly to supply a cutting-edge account of those exchanges and their function within the Earth-system, with specific specialize in gases and debris. Chapters within the publication hide: i) the ocean-atmosphere alternate of short-lived hint gases; ii) mechanisms and types of interfacial trade (including move speed parameterisations); iii) ocean-atmosphere alternate of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide; iv) ocean surroundings alternate of debris and v) present and destiny facts assortment and synthesis efforts. The scope of the ebook extends to the biogeochemical responses to emitted / deposited fabric and interactions and feedbacks within the wider Earth-system context.
This paintings constitutes a hugely special synthesis and reference; of curiosity to higher-level collage scholars (Masters, PhD) and researchers in ocean-atmosphere interactions and comparable fields (Earth-system technological know-how, marine / atmospheric biogeochemistry / climate). creation of this publication was once supported and funded via the european expense motion 735 and coordinated by means of the foreign SOLAS (Surface Ocean- decrease surroundings research) undertaking workplace.
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Extra info for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles
She is an atmospheric chemistry modeller, and her research interests are in long-range transport of pollution, biogeochemical cycling of mercury and surface emissions of chemical constituents. Truls Johannessen is a Professor at the Geophysical Institute and the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, of Chemical Oceanography/Biogeochemistry/Earth Sciences at the University of Bergen and Uni Research. His special research interests are in marine climates, geochemistry, oceanography and earth systems.
2010). The estimation of source strengths is not an easy task and comes with large uncertainties. For an oceanic gas, such as DMS, the “bottom-up” flux estimate requires reliable information about the oceanic concentrations (as indicated above) as well as the sea-air flux which depends on its temperature-dependent solubility, wind speed and other poorly quantified factors such as surfactants and sea state. The atmospheric concentration of DMS (typically a few nmol mÀ3) is often ignored in estimating sea to air fluxes of DMS, since relative to seawater concentrations, it is very small and thereby an error of only a few percent is made.
The main aqueous oxidants are H2O2, O3, O2 (if metal catalysed) and hypohalous acids (HOCl, HOBr). The aqueous oxidation of S (IV) by O3 is very pH dependent and only efficient in particles with pH > 6; at high pH, it is orders of magnitude faster than oxidation by H2O2 (see, for example, Fig. 5 in Faloona 2009). 1) or slightly higher due to concentration effects immediately after emission. 6 is in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 and strong acids, such as H2SO4 and HNO3, often reduce the pH even further.