Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering by Ian Crossland

By Ian Crossland

The nuclear gas cycle is characterised by way of the big variety of medical disciplines and applied sciences it employs. the advance of ever extra built-in techniques around the many levels of the nuclear gas cycle accordingly confronts plant brands and operators with ambitious demanding situations. The individuals and editors offer a complete and holistic overview of the whole nuclear gas cycle and describe either key good points and the wealth of modern study during this very important box. the hole sections overview the problems offered through the nuclear gas cycle - from radiological security and safety, to public recognition and monetary research – and the front-end of the gasoline cycle, together with uranium and thorium mining, enrichment and gas layout and fabrication. the ultimate sections evaluate either the effect of reactor layout on gasoline irradiation, and the choices on hand for spent gasoline reprocessing and radioactive waste administration, together with garage, transportation and disposal.

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44 World Nuclear Association web site, Nuclear Power in Germany. html accessed 7 March 2012. 45. Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. php, accessed 13 February 2012. © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012 2 Radiological protection and the nuclear fuel cycle G. LINSLEY, Private Consultant (Formerly Head, Waste Safety Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna), UK Abstract: The regulatory framework for providing the radiological protection of workers and the public is based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).

The unit of equivalent dose and of effective dose is the same as that of absorbed dose, namely joule per kilogram, but the name sievert (Sv) is used in order to avoid confusion with the unit of absorbed dose (Gy). When radionuclides are taken into the body, the resulting dose is received throughout the period of time during which they remain in the body. The committed dose is the total dose delivered during this period of time, and is calculated as a specified time integral of the rate of receipt of the dose.

This applies to both single acute doses and to situations where the doses are experienced in a protracted form as repeated annual exposures (ICRP, 2007). Stochastic effects may ensue if an irradiated cell is modified rather than killed. Modified cells may, after a prolonged process, develop into a cancer. The body’s repair and defence mechanisms make this a very improbable outcome at small doses; nevertheless, there is no evidence of a threshold dose below which cancer cannot result. The probability of occurrence of cancer is higher for higher doses, but the severity of any cancer that may result from irradiation is independent of the dose.

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