Nineteenth-Century Philosophy of Religion: The History of by Graham Oppy, N. N. Trakakis

By Graham Oppy, N. N. Trakakis

The 19th century used to be a turbulent interval within the background of the philosophical scrutiny of faith. significant students - corresponding to Hegel, Fichte, Schelling, Newman, Caird and Royce - sought to build systematic responses to the Enlightenment opinions of faith conducted via Spinoza and Hume. even as, new reviews of faith have been introduced by means of philosophers similar to Schopenhauer and Nietzsche and by way of students engaged in textual feedback, similar to Schleiermacher and Dilthey. Over the process the century, the paintings of Marx, Freud, Darwin and Durkheim introduced the progressive views of political economic system, psychoanalysis, evolutionary conception and anthropology to undergo on either faith and its research. those demanding situations performed an immense function within the shaping of twentieth-century philosophical considered faith. "Nineteenth-Century Philosophy of faith" can be of curiosity to students and scholars of Philosophy and faith, and may function an authoritative advisor for all who're drawn to the debates that happened during this seminal interval within the heritage of philosophical pondering faith.

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An unprecedented growth in industrialization, especially in Germany, issued in the race to compete with other European nations for colonies as sources of cheap labour and natural resources. The rise of new movements and ideologies, such as social Darwinism, communism, trade unionism and nationalism, challenged the social role of the churches, enforcing them either to retreat in the face of the mass appeal of these new creeds, or to dilute the distinctiveness of Christian doctrine by placing it in the service of their ends: an instance of the former strategy is the Vatican’s withdrawal in the face of Italian unification, and of the latter the rise of Christian Socialism.

One’s personality or individuality influences one’s speech acts both as an “indeterminate, fluid train of thoughts” (the way one thinks in general), and as “the completed structure of thoughts” in this speech act (why one speaks in just such a way in this act) (Schleiermacher 1998: 101–2). The first aspect 33 theodore vial Schleiermacher calls psychological, the second technical proper (both being part of technical interpretation in general). : 92–3). Most scholars who accuse Schleiermacher of attempting direct access to other people’s thoughts simply omit the important qualifier “so to speak” in citing this passage.

The basis of religious belief According to Fichte, transcendental philosophy neither demonstrates facts nor confirms beliefs but rather explains how these convictions arise in human consciousness. Just as philosophy accounts for the beliefs of experience in general, so philosophy of religion accounts for the beliefs of religious experience in particular. Although different religions include various beliefs, all religious 22 johann gottlieb fichte people believe in God. Whatever features their idea of God involves, it includes the concept of a divine governance, or an intelligible world order whereby good prevails over evil.

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