Nanoscience : nanotechnologies and nanophysics by C Dupas; P Houdy; M Lahmani; European Materials Research

By C Dupas; P Houdy; M Lahmani; European Materials Research Society

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It simply sketches the outline of the future device in a sacrificial layer, the resist, and this is then used in a transfer stage to shape the active layer according to the dimensions of the pattern imposed in the lithography stage. 2 Photoresists The photoresist is a thin layer deposited on the surface of the active material destined to receive the radiation or the interaction used during the lithographic process. The word ‘photoresist’, or ‘resist’ for short, is used for historical reasons. Optical lithography, or photolithography, which was the precursor of all modern microlithographic techniques, used a polymerised organic material or resin for this purpose.

According to this expression, the parameter g determines the sensitivity of the resist. This simple expression also shows that, if one is able to calculate the spatial distribution of energy deposited during exposure of a pattern, then one can account for the evolution of the molecular weight of the polymer film 8 D. Mailly and C. Vieu A a) Positive resist after development b) Anisotropic ion etching using the resist as mask c) Removal of resist a) Positive resist after development b) Deposition of a thin layer on the resist c) Dissolving the resist: lift-off a) Positive resist after development b) Electrolytic growth from c) Removal of resist the growth base B d) Anisotropic etch using the deposited film as etch mask C Fig.

Reflective optics are used, or a combination of reflective and refractive optics, but without magnification, so as to simplify the displacement operation. The advantage with this technique is that one uses only the best zone of the optics and this provides excellent definition. The disadvantage is that there is no reduction of the mask. It must have the same dimensions as the whole pattern to be reproduced on the wafer. Its fabrication thus becomes a delicate matter, and more and more costly as wafer sizes increase and critical dimensions decrease.

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