Nanoscience for the conservation of works of art by Piero Baglioni, David Chelazzi, Gabriella Caminati, Rodorigo

By Piero Baglioni, David Chelazzi, Gabriella Caminati, Rodorigo Giorgi, Luigi Dei, Debora Berti, Emiliano Carretti, Pierandrea Lo Nostro, Emiliano Fratini, Massimo Bonini

Content material: Cultural background Artefacts and Conservation: Surfaces and Interfaces; The Degradation of artworks fabrics; Conservation remedies: cleansing, Consolidation and security; cleansing I: Solvents and strategies; cleansing I: software; cleansing II: Surfactants and Micellar ideas; cleansing II: functions and Case experiences; cleansing III: Emulsions and Microemulsions; cleansing III: purposes and Case stories; cleansing IV: Gels and Polymeric Dispersions

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The liquid composition is uniform from the interior bulk phase to the surface but the balance of the forces acting on the surface molecules will be different from that in the bulk liquid phase. As a result, the surface molecules are continuously moving inwards more rapidly than interior molecules, which move upwards to take their places. This process decreases the number of molecules in the surface, and this diminishes the liquid surface area; this surface contraction continues until the interior accommodates the maximum possible number of molecules.

Top right) A water droplet removes dust as it rolls over a superhydrophobic surface. (bottom) Nanostructured islands or patches of wax on leaf surface. 1039/9781849737630-00001 28 Chapter 1 The surface is covered with microscopic islands or patches of wax and such heterogeneity enhances the hydrophobicity of the leaf enormously. 22). As discussed above, an initially slightly hydrophobic solid surface with a water contact angle ytrue4901 becomes very hydrophobic after roughening, and it may have a yapp approaching 1801.

Understanding the physical principles that rule wetting phenomena is therefore of crucial importance not only in understanding how and why a surface has been modified and degraded but also in order to envisage proper interventions to restore the original structure and appearance of the surface itself. Oxidation and corrosion, and formation of patinas, are only a few of the phenomena that inevitably descend from preliminary wetting phenomena. 17). Restoration of fabric and tapestry cannot avoid taking this feature into proper consideration.

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