Morphological Evolution, Adaptations, Homoplasies, by Rui Diogo
By Rui Diogo
The key objective of this paintings is, to aid make clear the interrelationships of catfishes, with significant implications at the research of the overall evolution of those fishes. an outstanding a part of this paintings, as a result, offers with a cladistic research of catfish higher-level phylogeny in keeping with broad morphological facts, during which are integrated a few terminal taxa now not integrated in prior analyses, yet mostly a great number of characters frequently excluded from these analyses, with specific awareness being given to catfish morphology. This research offers specific value to advanced, built-in buildings. will probably be curiosity to scholars, ichthyologists and biologists operating in evolution, taxonomy and phylogeny.
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Extra resources for Morphological Evolution, Adaptations, Homoplasies, Constraints, and Evolutionary Trends: Catfishes as a Case Study on General Phylogeny & Macroevolution
Although the monophyly of this family was strongly supported by Mo (1991) and previously corroborated by Diogo et al. (1999), De Pinna (1998),based on his unpublished thesis of 1993, suggested a polyphyletic status for the Bagridae. De Pinna's 1998 suggestion was seriously taken into account, with each of the two main bagrid subgroups referred by this author represented in the present phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this analysis includes the type genus Bagrus and genus Hemibagrus, both included in one of De Pinna's subgroups, and genera Rita and Bagrichthys, included in De Pinna's other subgroup.
In cladogram I the clade including Amphiliidae and Loricaroidei is diagnosed by the 'posterior portion of the palatine reduced into a bony lamina or short spinelike process without distal cartilage' (Mo, 1991: 204), while in cladogram I1 no character defines this clade. In Mo's cladogram I the clade including the loricaroids, amphiliids, sisorids, akysids, amblycipitids, clariids, heteropneustids, aspredinids and chacids is justified by a 'computer generated node' (Mo, 1991: 204), while in cladogram I1 the clade including all these groups is diagnosed by the 'absence of extrascapular' (Mo, 1991: 207).
The fact that these 2 genera belong to the largest trichomycterid subfamily, that these genera seem to occupy a somewhat basal position within this subfamily, and especially the strongly supported monophyly of the family somewhat attenuate, nevertheless, the importance of this specific issue in view of the more global aim of promoting a general analysis on the higher level phylogeny of the whole order Siluriformes. 3 MATERIAL, TECHNIQUES AND NOMENCLATURE The cladistic analysis of catfish higher level phylogeny presented in this work is based on a phylogenetic comparison of morphological characters concerning the configuration of the bones, muscles, ligaments and cartilages of the cephalic region, Weberian apparatus and pectoral girdle of the catfishes examined.