Modern trends in tunnelling and blast design by John Johansen

By John Johansen

A assessment of recent blasting suggestions utilized in tunnelling, chamber excavations and lake-tap blasting. The scope of this booklet comprises geological implications, reduce layout and gentle blasting ideas as well as chamber blasting. This publication additionally contains distinct examples outlining the layout concerns and strategies utilized in blasting lake-tap plugs for hydroelectric initiatives. it truly is designed as a reference e-book and significant other to classes in tunnel blasting concepts.

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Parameter Definition Qualitative ratio of effects Importance Reynolds number inertia viscosity if friction due to kinetic viscosity is important Froude number inertia gravity free-surface flows if gravity is important Mach number inertia compressibility compressible flow Weber number inertia surface tension pressure inertia shallow freesurface flows Euler number Cavitation number Drag or lift coefficient Prandtl number Eckert number Specific-heat ratio Strouhal number Roughness ratio Grashof number Temperature ratio enclosed flows and free-surface flows cavitation pressure inertia drag force, lift force flow generally dynamic force dissipation conduction kinetic energy enthalpy enthalpy internal energy oscillation speed mean speed wall roughness body length if molecular diffusion is important dissipation of flow energy compressible flow oscillating flow turbulent flow near rough boundaries buoyancy natural convection viscosity A wall temperature heat transfer A flow temperature SIMILITUDE AND DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 45 At the foundation of dimensional analysis is the II theorem, which states that a dimensionally homogeneous linear equation is reducible to a functional relationship among a set of dimensionless parameters.

In the foregoing discussion, dimensional homogeneity provided a means to relate coefficients/, C, and n, and the variables that affect them. 4 SIMILITUDE Full model-prototype similitude requires satisfaction of the following conditions: 34 HYDRAULIC MODELING: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE 1. Geometric similitude, whereby the ratio of all homologous (geometrically equivalent) length dimensions are equal and where only similarity in form is involved; 2. Kinematic similitude, whereby at geometrically homologous points in model and prototype, velocities and accelerations are in a constant ratio; and, 3.

Further aspects of hydraulic model- INTRODUCTION 25 FIGURE 1-6. Distribution of depth-averaged velocities predicted from a numerical model simulation of flow in the reach of the Columbia River shown in Fig. 1-lb. 3. The sequence of illustrations presented as Figure 1-7 shows an area of the upper Niagara River, which has been the subject of an extensive investigation of flow and ice movement An aerial view is given by Figure l-7(a). The area of concern extends a distance of about 9,000 m upstream from the Niagara Falls to two branches of the upper Niagara River, the Tonawanda and Chippawa Channels.

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