Mercury Contaminated Sites: Characterization, Risk by Ralf Ebinghaus, Ralph R. Turner, Luiz D. de Lacerda, O.
By Ralf Ebinghaus, Ralph R. Turner, Luiz D. de Lacerda, O. Vasiliev, Wim Salomons
Mercury is phenomenal one of the worldwide environmental pollution of continuous th crisis. particularly within the final decade of the 20 century, environmental scientists, legislators, politicians, and the general public became extra conscious of mercury pollu tion within the worldwide setting. It has usually been steered that anthropogenic emissions are resulting in a normal raise in mercury on neighborhood, local, and glo bal scales. a number of commercial actions, together with the mining of gold, silver, and mercury itself, have prompted mercury infection of terrestrial and aquatic eco platforms. Mercury-contaminated websites are plentiful around the world. Mercury has been accrued as an "industrial legacy" within the rocks, soils, and sediments at, and adjoining to, business websites and now might pose major hazards to human and eco logical wellbeing and fitness. Direct inputs of mercury into the surroundings by means of commercial activi ties have in general lowered considerably within the Western global during the last 3 many years. besides the fact that, assets comparable to coal combustion and using mercury in gold and silver mining stay of value on an international scale. an identical is correct for diffuse resources corresponding to terrestrial landscapes which have been impacted through mer cury inputs from the ambience some time past. Soils (and crops) positioned just about huge atmospheric mercury resources have truly been sinks whereas those resources have been lively some time past. ultimately, even though, those soils can have develop into very important diffuse sector assets after the unique emissions have been discontinued.
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Extra resources for Mercury Contaminated Sites: Characterization, Risk Assessment and Remediation
Range (pgll) % Hg(O)/react. 2 ± lOA • Equatorial Pacific Ocean. 15-100 <20 Natural and Anthropogenic Mercury Sources 31 lived while the system reequilibrated with ambient Hg( 0), and the overall effect of these pulses on annual fluxes has not been assessed. Both elemental Hg and DMM are found in oceanic waters in the DGM fraction. A number of studies (Fitzgerald et a1. 1994; Mason et a1. 1994a) suggest that direct reduction of ionic mercury is predominant in low oxygen waters (Mason and Fitzgerald 1993).
1991; Fitzgerald et al. 1991, 1994), but we have to keep in mind that this assumption is based on physical chemical theories whose applicabilities to the water-air system in oceans have not been proven for mercury beyond doubt. All available flux data were obtained by this model (see sect. 2) and must therefore be seen as rough estimates rather than exact values. 4 to 16 ng m -2 h - I . The concentrations of elemental mercury and its modeled evasional flux to the atmosphere in various oceanic regions are given in Table 16.
1994b). Since the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean is an upwelling area, it was suggested on the base of model calculations that reactive Hg(II) supplied by the upwelling process is the source of the observed increased Hg( 0) concentrations and thus leads to the inferred atmospheric emission flux. Studies in the northern Atlantic Ocean also identify this region as an atmospheric Hg source, with emission fluxes averaging 139 ± 95 pg m- 2 year-I (Mason and Fitzgerald 1996). The same trend has also been observed for coastal regions.