Meiobenthology: The Microscopic Fauna in Aquatic Sediments by Olav Giere
By Olav Giere
Meiobenthology is the technology of the tiny animals that reside in large numbers in all aquatic sediments. This absolutely revised and enlarged moment version emphasizes new discoveries and advancements during this box. significant growth has been made in 3 basic parts: - Systematics, variety and distribution, - Ecology, nutrients webs, and effort circulation, - Environmental features, together with reviews of anthropogenic impacts.
The meiobenthos of polar and tropical areas, deep-sea bottoms and hydrothermal vents are actually studied in additional aspect. The excessive variety of species discovered to outlive below such severe stipulations places them on the vanguard of biodiversity reports. Molecular screening tools permit huge numbers to be analyzed upon utilising moderate attempt. the purpose of this ebook is to synthesize those glossy clinical achievements such that meiobenthology can play a key position in aquatic study and in assessing the overall healthiness of our environment.
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Extra resources for Meiobenthology: The Microscopic Fauna in Aquatic Sediments
Salinity often drops to brackish-water conditions (about 20%0). In contrast. on coarser. well-drained sandy beaches with a high permeability. precipitation can affect salinity to a depth of 30 cm (REID 1932-33). creating unfavourable conditions to meiofauna. Consequently. in sandy beaches the drainage system is complicated by effects of both precipitation and groundwater currents. Even in fully marine shores without any direct freshwater influx at the surface. groundwater often has a markedly reduced salinity depending on local geological.
Phytoplankton blooms result in the deposit of considerable phytodetritus on the sea floor, both in coastal and deep-sea bottoms. These organic deposits enhance the bacterial activity after relatively short time periods (a few weeks to months) and, subsequently, can cause a significant increase in meiofauna abundance and diversity (THIEL et al. 1988/89; FLEEGER et al. 1989; LAMBSHEAD and GOODAY 1990). In Kiel Bight, benthic metabolization of a phytoplankton bloom was completed after only 3 weeks (GRAF et al.
The physical diffusion of sediment-bound substances (GRAF pers. ). thus counteracting the adsorptive and accumulating sedimentary processes mentioned above (see also Hylleberg and Henriksen 1980; Aller and Yingst 1985; Kristensen et al. 1985). Recent studies have shown that also under anoxic conditions mineralization processes are considerable and may even exceed the aerobic degradation (Kristensen and Blackburn 1987; Hansen and Blackburn 1992). Additionally. the presence of animal tubes and burrows has been shown to increase the pore water circulation and the flux of dissolved substances (ALLER 1980; J~RGENSEN et al.