Marine protected areas for whales, dolphins, and porpoises : by Erich Hoyt

By Erich Hoyt

This e-book is a key conservation software and a springboard for around the globe switch in human attitudes in the direction of the world's oceans, the place all existence originated and the place nearly all of lifestyles on the earth nonetheless lives. the generally praised first variation, released in 2005, ended in a variety of new marine secure quarter proposals and a couple of striking conservation successes world wide. during this thoroughly revised and accelerated moment version, new advancements within the Mediterranean, Caribbean and Pacific are defined, in addition to destiny instructions for top Seas security. New sections convey the right way to layout and deal with MPAs in an ever noisier ocean that's topic to weather switch, elevated delivery and oil exploration. the method of safe quarter construction for cetaceans has been speeded up and greater than two hundred fascinating new areas are targeted during this version. This booklet offers a course map for MPA managers, in addition to international locations, to fulfill the formidable ambitions for hugely safe MPA networks through 2012 and 2020.

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Sample text

A number of papers and reports have focused on the meaning and rationale behind international whale sanctuaries (eg Holt, 2000; Leaper and Papastavrou, 2001; Phillips, 1996). Carlson (unpublished) listed 52 whale sanctuaries of all sizes, drawing on the more restricted definition of a cetacean sanctuary adopted by the IUCN/UNEP/WWF Workshop on Cetacean Sanctuaries, held in México in February 1979. This workshop defined a cetacean sanctuary as a place where: • • • • no cetacean may be killed, taken alive or harassed; the environmental qualities necessary for the biological functions that cetaceans perform there (such as breeding, calving, nursing, migrating, feeding) are not impaired by human activities; benign scientific research and observation by the public may be conducted under appropriate control; and public awareness of the significance of cetaceans in the natural environment can be enhanced (IUCN/UNEP/WWF, 1979).

This sanctuary, which covers nearly 4 million square miles (10 million km2), is intended to protect whales from whaling on their mating and calving grounds as well as on some, but not all, of their feeding grounds. The precise species remit of the IWC continues to be debated, but the sanctuary is generally taken to cover only the large whales and not the small whales, dolphins and porpoises that are not listed on the IWC schedule and many of which continue to be killed in large numbers throughout the Indian Ocean as the bycatch of various fisheries (Leatherwood et al, 1984).

How well do the hundreds of existing MPAs in this volume conserve cetacean habitat? The answer is that, in a few limited areas, MPAs are trying to Introduction 11 do an important job for cetaceans and cetacean habitat, but by and large, around the world, cetacean habitat, inside and outside protected areas and international sanctuaries, is little recognized, largely undescribed, marginally protected at best and being degraded every day. In some cases, the animals are being killed in conflicts with fisheries, shipping traffic or pollution of one kind or another such that any habitat protection is rendered almost worthless.

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