Marine Biotechnology in the 21st Century by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life
By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Ocean Studies Board, Committee on Marine Biotechnology: Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products
Dramatic advancements in figuring out the basic underpinnings of existence have supplied intriguing possibilities to make marine bioproducts a massive a part of the U.S. economic system. numerous marine dependent prescribed drugs are less than lively advertisement improvement, atmosphere overall healthiness is excessive at the public's record of matters, and aquaculture is delivering an ever larger percentage of the seafood on our tables. however, marine biotechnology has now not but stuck the public's, or investor's, realization. workshops, held in October 1999 and November 2001 on the nationwide Academies, have been profitable in highlighting new advancements and possibilities in environmental and biomedical functions of marine biotechnology, and likewise in picking out elements which are impeding advertisement exploitation of those items. This record contains a synthesis of the 2001 classes addressing drug discovery and improvement, purposes of genomics and proteomics to marine biotechnology, biomaterials and bioengineering, and public coverage and essays contributed through the workshop speakers.
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McCarthy et al. (2000) gave another example. The trematode Microphallus piriformis uses periwinkles, Littorina saxatilis, as intermediate host and silver gulls, Larus argentatus, as final host. It lacks flee-swimming cercariae and gulls become infected by eating snails. Laboratory and field experiments showed that snails with infective stages moved further upwards than uninfected snails or snails with "immature" parasites, increasing the chances of infection. Moore (1995, also Poulin and Thomas, 1999) points out that behavioural changes may be adaptations of hosts to minimize effects by parasites, or they may be adaptations that favour the parasite, for example, by ensuring transmission.
Indeed, if 27 parasite species is considered to be the maximum a species can support (an assumption for which there is no evidence), about 84% of all niches must be considered to be empty. Sasal et al. (1999a) studied communities of digenean endoparasites of 11 species of sparid and 7 species of labrid fishes in the Mediterranean and found a lack of niche saturation: "there was little inter- and/or intraspecific competition or there were enough available space and resources within the host". Zander et al.
Concerning effects on host communities, they may have different effects on different host species infected by them, they can adversely affect a key species in the host community, or they can affect the host phenotypes and thereby the importance of particular hosts in the community. ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHYOF MARINE PARASITES 45 Poulin and Thomas (1999) reviewed work that shows a normal frequency distribution of values of various traits in uninfected hosts. Parasitic infection can lead to a shift in the mean value of the trait (in either direction) and increase the variance, depending on the intensity of infection.