Marine Biology , Seventh Edition by Peter Castro / Michael E. Huber

By Peter Castro / Michael E. Huber

This introductory textual content takes a world strategy in demonstrating how the oceans functionality as a part of a world, built-in process. Examples are taken from a variety of areas and ecosystems around the world, with details on geology, chemistry and marine surroundings. The textual content positive aspects boxed essays on medicinal drugs from the ocean, biodiversity and the evolution of whales.

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Experiments thus allow the effects of different variables to be separated. The way that variables interact can also be studied. The mussels could be maintained in different combinations of temperature and food supply, for example, to see whether the temperature at which they grow fastest depends on how much food they get. ” The public usually reserves such scorn for controversial or unpopular theories. ” In reality, a scientific theory is on much firmer ground than many people realize. A scientific theory is a hypothesis that has passed so many tests that it is generally accepted as true.

1). 1). The Atlantic Ocean is a little larger than the Indian Ocean, but the two are similar in average depth. The Arctic is the smallest and shallowest ocean. A number of shallow seas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and South China Sea, are connected or marginal to the main ocean basins. Though we usually treat the oceans as four separate entities, they are actually interconnected. This connection is most obvious when the world is viewed from the South Pole (Fig. 2). From this view it is clear that the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are large branches of one vast system.

Light does not penetrate very far in seawater (see “Transparency,” p. 47), which means not only that most of the ocean is too dark to see, but also that even with artificial light visibility is quite limited. Sound, by contrast, travels long distances under water, which is the basis of sonar. Modern sonar and computerized data processing produce detailed three-dimensional images of the sea floor (see Figs. 21). Instead of generating their own sound, “passive” sonar systems take advantage of existing background noise from waves, ships, animals, and other sources.

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