Manned Spaceflight by Britannica Educational Publishing
By Britannica Educational Publishing
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At the time, the military services, particularly the air force and the army, hoped that they would have a leading role in space. S. space projects. Soon afterward, he decided to separate civilian from military space efforts and proposed the creation of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to manage the civilian segment. After approval by Congress, NASA began operation on Oct. 1, 1958. DARPA was not successful in establishing itself as a military space agency. By 1960, after the army had been obliged to relinquish control of JPL and Braun’s rocket team to NASA management, the air force had emerged as the leading military service for space.
The Soviet Union selected 20 air force pilots from 102 candidates for cosmonaut training in February 1960. These individuals also had to meet restrictions on height (170 cm, or 5 feet 7 inches) and weight (70 kg, or 154 pounds) because of the small size of the Soviet Vostok spacecraft. The identity of these individuals was kept secret until they were actually launched into space. S. counterparts. After a series of five test flights carrying dogs and human dummies, the first person lifted into space in Vostok 1 atop a modified R-7 rocket on April 12, 1961, from the Soviet launch site at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
In 1969, with development running late for the large spacecraft that was to ferry crews and supplies to the station, Soviet officials decided to accelerate the program by employing the Soyuz spacecraft that had been developed during the failed attempt to win the Moon race. Moreover, because some of the systems needed for a military reconnaissance platform were not yet available, it was decided to initiate the program with a station equipped as a scientific laboratory. 9 feet) in diameter. It was derived from the Almaz reconnaissance platform designed in the 1960s by Soviet aerospace engineer Vladimir Chelomey.