Laboratory Technique in Organic Chemistry by Kenneth Berle Wiberg
By Kenneth Berle Wiberg
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Extra resources for Laboratory Technique in Organic Chemistry
But if you do have some control over the acquisition and/or processing parameters, then there are some useful hints here. This brings us on to the next challenge for the section – hardware (and software) differences. You may operate a Bruker, Varian, Jeol or even another make of NMR spectrometer and each of these will have their own language to describe key parameters. We will attempt to be ‘vendor neutral’ in our discussions and hopefully you will be able to translate to your own instrument’s language.
4. They are applicable to compounds in the common NMR solvents – but not in D6 -benzene (or D5 pyridine). The substituent effects are additive, but don’t place too much reliance on chemical shifts predicted using the table, in compounds where more than two groups are substituted next to each other, as steric interactions between them can cause large deviations from expected values. 4, like all others, does not cater for solvent shifts, etc! A number of features become apparent on running an eye over these figures.
We call this the ‘flip angle’. A 90◦ flip angle gives rise to the maximum signal (you can picture it as the projection on the x–y plane, where z is the direction of the magnetic field. 2. The other consequence of the pulse width is the spread of frequencies generated. The shorter the pulse, the wider will be the spread of frequencies. Because we often want to excite a wide range of frequencies, we need very short pulses (normally in the order of a few microseconds). 3). At first sight, this may appear to be a lousy function to excite evenly all the frequencies in a spectrum but because we use such a short pulse, we only use the bit of the function around x = 0.