Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam by Reuven Firestone

By Reuven Firestone

Whereas there exists no proof so far that the indigenous population of Arabia knew of holy struggle sooner than Islam, holy conflict principles and behaviors seem already between Muslims throughout the first new release. This e-book makes a speciality of why and the way the sort of probably radical improvement happened. Basing his speculation on facts from the Qur'an and early Islamic literary resources, Firestone locates the foundation of Islamic holy warfare and lines its evolution as a reaction to the adjustments affecting the hot group of Muslims in its transition from historical Arabian tradition to the spiritual civilization of Islam.

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Extra info for Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam

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80 Because tribal members felt no inherent responsibility toward those outside the kinship group, the system of mutual revenge (tha r) served to a certain extent as a preventive to wanton killing across tribal boundaries. Not only was it a matter of individual honor and responsibility for a close relative of the victim to take revenge on the killer, tribal honor was also at stake if the extended kinship group could not protect or avenge its members or those attached to it, and this ideally meant a life for a life.

Pre-Islamic poets, who were an extremely important institution in Bedouin society, perpetuated the ideals of heroism and manliness in verse. 60 Because of the great importance placed on honor, such issues as tribal jealousies, insults, and competition all served to encourage fighting between tribes. Even multigenerational wars were attributed to insults given in verse, and poetry occasionally ended bloody conflicts as well. In the latter case, impartial judges were appointed to determine which side was more successful in a contest of boasting against each other (mufakhara/munafara).

Even multigenerational wars were attributed to insults given in verse, and poetry occasionally ended bloody conflicts as well. In the latter case, impartial judges were appointed to determine which side was more successful in a contest of boasting against each other (mufakhara/munafara). 61 31 arabia 32 Equality Established by economic necessity for survival in the difficult natural environment and strengthened by the importance of honor, the concept of fraternity among equals was of great importance among the Bedouin.

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