Japan's Economic Dilemma: The Institutional Origins of by Bai Gao

By Bai Gao

After a long time of likely unsurpassable progress and prosperity, Japan's financial system declined within the Nineteen Nineties. The reversal surprised observers: How might the economic system have reversed itself so by surprise? Bai Gao's illuminating research of Japan's monetary tale demonstrates how an analogous fiscal associations may possibly produce either outstanding successes and a protracted stoop. In Japan's financial quandary, Gao describes tensions in the eastern financial system that created a bubble within the Eighties, but turned unsustainable and ended in a stagnant household economic climate within the Nineteen Nineties. those that were following the energetic debate over "What grew to become of the japanese Miracle?" will have fun with Gao's historic viewpoint and multilayered research. Bai Gao is an affiliate professor within the division of sociology at Duke collage in Durham, North Carolina. He was once a vacationing pupil at Tokyo college and taught at Hitotsubashi college and Yokohama nationwide collage. he's the writer of monetary Ideology and jap business coverage (Cambridge, 1997), which obtained the 1998 Hiromi Arisawa Memorial Award in top Books in jap stories from the organization of yankee collage Presses.

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After the First Oil Shock ended the high growth period, Japanese corporations were under strong pressure to improve efficiency. To save interest payments, they began to reduce the amounts of loans they borrowed from 38 three theoretical issues the banks (Miyazaki 1985). The liberalization of finance in the 1980s increased the corporations’ freedom to raise capital through equity finance. As a result of these two changes in the relationship between banks and big corporations, the banks’ monitoring of big corporations deteriorated further.

This worsened the intrinsic contradiction created by the dilemma between strong coordination and weak control and monitoring in the Japanese economic system, creating new structural conditions under which its institutional logic began to malfunction. 1 Carl Kester (1997), however, brings the two horns of the dilemma together in a competing relationship. Kester points out that all modern corporations must address two problems: the problem of coordination associated with the establishment and maintenance of contractual exchange among separate companies, and the problem of control associated with the separation of ownership and management.

Such demands multiplied during the period following the Second World War. Indeed, a key component of the implicit postwar social bargain in the advanced industrial countries has been the provision of social insurance and safety nets at home (unemployment compensation, severance payments, and adjustment assistance, for example) in exchange for the adoption of freer trade policies. For two decades, the development of various institutions and mechanisms for social protection seemed to confirm Karl Polanyi’s assertion that “the protective countermovement was not external; rather, it was essential for the vitality of a capitalist order” (see Block 1990, 39).

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