Introduction to magnetic random-access memory by Bernard Dieny, Ronald B. Goldfarb, Kyung-Jin Lee

By Bernard Dieny, Ronald B. Goldfarb, Kyung-Jin Lee

Magnetic random-access reminiscence (MRAM) is poised to interchange conventional laptop reminiscence in accordance with complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS). MRAM will surpass all different different types of reminiscence units when it comes to nonvolatility, low power dissipation, quickly switching velocity, radiation hardness, and sturdiness. even though toggle-MRAM is presently a advertisement product, it's transparent that destiny advancements in MRAM might be according to spin-transfer torque, which uses electrons’ spin angular momentum rather than their cost. MRAM would require an amalgamation of magnetics and microelectronics applied sciences. notwithstanding, researchers and builders in magnetics and in microelectronics attend diverse technical meetings, post in several journals, use diversified instruments, and feature various backgrounds in condensed-matter physics, electric engineering, and fabrics science.

This booklet is an advent to MRAM for microelectronics engineers written by way of experts in magnetic fabrics and units. It offers the fundamental phenomena interested by MRAM, the fabrics and movie stacks getting used, the elemental ideas of many of the forms of MRAM (toggle and spin-transfer torque; magnetized in-plane or perpendicular-to-plane), the back-end magnetic expertise, and up to date advancements towards logic-in-memory architectures. It is helping bridge the cultural hole among the microelectronics and magnetics groups

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Introduction to magnetic random-access memory

Magnetic random-access reminiscence (MRAM) is poised to interchange conventional computing device reminiscence in response to complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS). MRAM will surpass all different forms of reminiscence units by way of nonvolatility, low strength dissipation, speedy switching velocity, radiation hardness, and sturdiness.

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7. T. Valet and A. Fert, “Theory of the perpendicular magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 48, pp. 7099. 8. S. S. P. Parkin, N. More, and K. P. Roche, “Oscillations in exchange coupling and magnetoresistance in metallic superlattice structures: Co/Ru, Co/Cr, and Fe/Cr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, pp. 2304. 9. B. Dieny, V. S. Speriosu, S. S. P. Parkin, B. A. Gurney, D. R. Wilhoit, and D. Mauri, “Giant magnetoresistance in soft ferromagnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 43, pp. 1297. 10.

Magnetic properties should be ensured usually for the temperature range from 0 to 80°C; this requires TC significantly above about 300°C. Examples of Curie temperatures are 1404 K for cobalt, 1043 K for iron, and 631 K for nickel. This means that the exchange interactions are stronger in cobalt than they are in iron or nickel. A typical magnetization process for a ferromagnet is illustrated in Fig. 6. Above a saturation magnetic field Hs, all the localized magnetic moments are aligned along the field direction and form a single magnetic domain (states (i) and (iii) in Fig.

S. Yuasa, T. Nagahama, A. Fukushima, Y. Suzuki, and K. Ando, “Giant room-temperature magneto­ resistance in single-crystal Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions,” Nat. Mater. 3, pp. 1038/nmat1257. 28 CHAPTER 1 BASIC SPINTRONIC TRANSPORT PHENOMENA 13. S. S. P. Parkin, C. Kaiser, A. Panchula, P. M. Rice, B. Hughes, M. Samant, and S-H. Yang, “Giant tunnelling magnetoresistance at room temperature with MgO(100) tunnel barriers,” Nat. Mater. 3, pp. 1038/nmat1256. 14. R. Meservey and P. M. Tedrow, “Spin-polarized electron tunneling,” Phys.

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