Introduction to Biomaterials: Basic Theory with Engineering by C. Mauli Agrawal
By C. Mauli Agrawal
This succinct textbook provides scholars the proper advent to the area of biomaterials, linking the basic homes of metals, polymers, ceramics and typical biomaterials to the original merits and obstacles surrounding their biomedical functions. scientific issues resembling sterilization, floor amendment, cell-biomaterial interactions, drug supply platforms and tissue engineering are mentioned intimately, giving scholars useful perception into the real-world demanding situations linked to biomaterials engineering; key definitions, equations and ideas are concisely summarised along the textual content, permitting scholars to fast and simply determine crucial details; and bringing jointly parts from around the booklet, the ultimate bankruptcy discusses smooth advertisement implants, not easy scholars to think about destiny business chances. Concise adequate to learn in one semester, and requiring just a uncomplicated knowing of biology, this balanced and available textbook is the suitable creation to biomaterials for college kids of engineering and fabrics technological know-how.
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Extra resources for Introduction to Biomaterials: Basic Theory with Engineering Applications
14). 2 Galvanic series for select metals Noble or cathodic Active or anodic Platinum Gold Graphite Silver 18–8 Stainless steel (passive) Bronzes (Cu–Sn) Copper Brasses (Cu–Zn) Nickel (active) Tin Lead 18–8 Stainless steel (active) Steel/iron Aluminum Zinc Magnesium With time, the oxygen in the crevice gets depleted due to limited ﬂuid ﬂow and the reduction reaction slows down in that locale. The reduction reaction continues unfettered in areas external to the crevice, and the number of metal ions going into solution does not decrease signiﬁcantly to maintain balance between the two processes in the crevice.
12 Examples of fatigue S–N curves. Solid lines show the behavior of a material with an endurance limit (below a certain load the material will not undergo fatigue failure). Dotted line shows typical behavior for a material which does not exhibit a fatigue limit. In most materials, there is a minimum stress level below which fatigue failure does not occur irrespective of the number of loading cycles. This stress level is known as the endurance limit, and the S–N plot becomes horizontal at this point.
A good example is the development of total joint prostheses to replace natural hip and knee joints that have become non-functional due to trauma or conditions such as arthritis. Although surgical experiments with total hip replacements started in the 1890s, it was not until the early 1960s that a successful total hip replacement was developed by Sir John Charnley using stainless steel and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene. This was followed by the development of total knee replacements in the period from 1968 to 1972.