Institutional Change in Southeast Asia (European Institute by Fredrik Sjöholm, José Tongzon

By Fredrik Sjöholm, José Tongzon

This booklet examines the institutional alterations in Southeast Asia because the monetary hindrance in 1997. It specializes in the determinants of the alterations, implementation of the alterations and some of the modifications among international locations within the zone.

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However, the reduction in NPLs within the financial sector itself cannot be regarded as a successful achievement of economic restructuring after a financial crisis. For the reduction can be simply achieved by shifting NPLs to outside the financial sector by purchasing them with public funds or selling them to private investors. If we want to evaluate a restructuring process, we need to investigate what happened to the overall number of NPLs at the level of the economy. 2 Trend of NPLs in Malaysia and Korea, 1997–2001 NPLs in the NPLs Accumulate NPLs B/GDP Accumulate (A+B)/ financial ratio to disposed outside (%) NPLs in the GDP(%) sectora (RM total the financial economy (RM bil & Won loans systemb (RM bil.

10 For details, refer to Shin (2003). 11 For details, see Shin and Chang (2003). 12 It is not precise to compare them directly because figures for M&A sales are reported on gross basis and those for FDI inflows are reported on net basis in World Investment Report. However, the comparison advanced here at least provides a rough picture of the relative share between M&A sales and greenfield investments in the FDI inflow of individual countries. 13 This was well reflected in creditor banks’ preference of selling Daewoo Motors and Hynix to foreign buyers than turning them around with their own initiatives.

Three of the countries that spend most on education, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand, have the fewest students per teacher in primary school. The figures for secondary school are quite different with very low ratios in, for instance, Indonesia, Myanmar and Laos, and with the highest ratio in the Philippines. The previous tables showed various inputs to education. These inputs produce an output that is also affected by the qualifications of teachers, the curriculum, the Educational reforms and challenges in Southeast Asia 29 availability and number of schools, and other such factors.

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