Influenza Virus: Methods and Protocols by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Gabriele Neumann
By Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Gabriele Neumann
Reports of influenza-like health problems date again to the center a long time, and outbreaks of influenza most probably bothered people lengthy ahead of that. over the past part century, influenza virus learn has ended in the improvement of 2 periods of antivirals – ion channel and neuraminidase inhibitors. lately, a style of the synthetic iteration of an influenza virus used to be demonstrated. the program has been instrumental within the improvement of novel influenza vaccines and within the figuring out of viral pathogenicity and the features of viral proteins. Influenza Virus: tools and Protocols summarizes the present innovations that experience made this growth attainable, starting from protocols for virus isolation, development, and subtyping to tactics for the effective iteration of any influenza virus. Written within the profitable Methods in Molecular Biology™ sequence structure, chapters contain introductions to their respective themes, lists of the required fabrics and reagents, step by step, with no trouble reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and keeping off identified pitfalls.
Authoritative and simply available, Influenza Virus: equipment and Protocols seeks to serve either pros and newcomers with the options utilized in a variety of laboratories all over the world which are, therefore, the construction blocks that underpin just about all influenza virus study.
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Extra resources for Influenza Virus: Methods and Protocols
S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. (2007) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), 5th Edition. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office. pdf. 11. M. (1936) Influenza virus on the developing egg. I. Changes associated with the development of an egg-passaged strain of virus. Br J Exp Pathol. 17, 282–293. 12. N. C. (1983) Receptor determinants of human and animal influenza virus isolates: differences in receptor specificity of the H3 hemagglutinin based on species of origin.
Neutralizing antibodies directed against HA are the major mediator of protective immunity against influenza. Proper virus titration is essential for analysis of antigenic properties of major surface proteins of the virus, the hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase. Comparative antigenic analysis of different strains using standard antiserum, particularly from postinfection ferrets, plays an important role in monitoring antigenic evolution of influenza viruses of different types and subtypes. Antigenic characterization is an important tool in the selection of the most updated vaccine strains.
2. 8. The virus back titration is evaluated to determine if the working dilution of virus used in the assay contained the desired amount of virus. The cut-off value for the virus back titration is the mean of the VC median and the CC median. This is the same cut-off that is used to evaluate neutralizing antibody titers. The dilution of the first well below the cut-off value is the back titration titer. The dilutions in the back titration wells are beginning at well A: 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 1:64, 1:128, and 1:256.