Hydraulic Modeling: Concepts and Practice by R. Ettema, R. Arndt, P. Roberts, T. Wahl

By R. Ettema, R. Arndt, P. Roberts, T. Wahl

This e-book provides the guidelines at the back of version layout and use for a extensive spectrum of hydraulic modeling equipment. distinct assistance is equipped for choosing the modeling strategy probably to provide the knowledge sought. This guide offers many various tools of hydraulic modeling from which to settle on, because it covers an in depth collection of modeling themes, technical matters, and techniques. major advances in modeling tools and the broadening of hydraulic concerns addressed via hydraulic modeling necessitated this up to date guide. the subjects contain: similitude and dimensional research, single-phase circulation, unfastened boundary circulate, gas-liquid flows, environmental flows, Coastal and estuary techniques, Ice, particles, and hydroelastic vibrations, hydraulic equipment, layout, building, and operation of hydraulic types, and instrumentation and information acquisition. 5 case-study examples are incorporated to supply an total feel of the modeling method from begin to end.

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Parameter Definition Qualitative ratio of effects Importance Reynolds number inertia viscosity if friction due to kinetic viscosity is important Froude number inertia gravity free-surface flows if gravity is important Mach number inertia compressibility compressible flow Weber number inertia surface tension pressure inertia shallow freesurface flows Euler number Cavitation number Drag or lift coefficient Prandtl number Eckert number Specific-heat ratio Strouhal number Roughness ratio Grashof number Temperature ratio enclosed flows and free-surface flows cavitation pressure inertia drag force, lift force flow generally dynamic force dissipation conduction kinetic energy enthalpy enthalpy internal energy oscillation speed mean speed wall roughness body length if molecular diffusion is important dissipation of flow energy compressible flow oscillating flow turbulent flow near rough boundaries buoyancy natural convection viscosity A wall temperature heat transfer A flow temperature SIMILITUDE AND DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 45 At the foundation of dimensional analysis is the II theorem, which states that a dimensionally homogeneous linear equation is reducible to a functional relationship among a set of dimensionless parameters.

In the foregoing discussion, dimensional homogeneity provided a means to relate coefficients/, C, and n, and the variables that affect them. 4 SIMILITUDE Full model-prototype similitude requires satisfaction of the following conditions: 34 HYDRAULIC MODELING: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE 1. Geometric similitude, whereby the ratio of all homologous (geometrically equivalent) length dimensions are equal and where only similarity in form is involved; 2. Kinematic similitude, whereby at geometrically homologous points in model and prototype, velocities and accelerations are in a constant ratio; and, 3.

Further aspects of hydraulic model- INTRODUCTION 25 FIGURE 1-6. Distribution of depth-averaged velocities predicted from a numerical model simulation of flow in the reach of the Columbia River shown in Fig. 1-lb. 3. The sequence of illustrations presented as Figure 1-7 shows an area of the upper Niagara River, which has been the subject of an extensive investigation of flow and ice movement An aerial view is given by Figure l-7(a). The area of concern extends a distance of about 9,000 m upstream from the Niagara Falls to two branches of the upper Niagara River, the Tonawanda and Chippawa Channels.

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