Houben-Weyl Methods in Organic Chemistry: Hetarenes: 6+ by Houben J., Weyl T.

By Houben J., Weyl T.

Methoden der Organischen Chemie (Methods of natural Chemistry, known as Houben-Weyl) is a regular reference paintings for chemists engaged in natural synthesis. In volumes on compound periods, together with all Supplemental volumes, preparative tools are handled comprehensively and significantly. Tables of examples evaluate crucial equipment and express their scope. distinct experimental strategies are given for the simplest tools. The reactivity and extra reactions of every compound classification also are provided. The vast use of formulation schemes help in making the German-language volumes extra with no trouble comprehensible to non-German readers.

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Extra resources for Houben-Weyl Methods in Organic Chemistry: Hetarenes: 6+ Membered Rings with 2+ Heteroatom

Example text

A standard aprotic electrolyte system with general applicability for electroorganic syntheses is acetonitrile with Bu4 NBF4 as supporting electrolyte. 7 V, a low reactivity (nucleophily and electrophily) and a relatively high dielectric constant and conductivity. The low boiling point allows an easy separation after the reaction. The toxicity of acetonitrile has to be considered, however (maximum allowable concentration at the working place 20 ppm). The application of aprotic electrolytes usually requires that water traces are carefully removed and therefore needs much effort for purification steps in an inert gas atmosphere.

Advantages of the SPE technology have been verified for different reactions using cation- and anion-exchange membranes in combination with various electrode materials in aqueous and nonaqueous media. A successful example is the methoxylation of amides, such as N ,N -dimethylformamide (DMF), which runs nearly perfectly with graphite felt electrodes, pressed on the surfaces of a cation-exchange membrane (Nafion ) in a pure mixture of methanol and DMF without any additive. Approximately 100% selectivity and current efficiency at a low cell voltage [68] is better than reported for Bu4 NBF4 as supporting electrolyte [69].

The low boiling point simplifies the product separation by distillation. Especially interesting is methanol simultaneously as reactant and solvent, for example, for methoxylations (see Chapter 6). The dual methoxylation, for example, of toluene derivatives, results in the selective synthesis of acetals, which can be hydrolyzed to aldehydes, under recycling of the methanol. g. [3b, 63]). 4 Solvents Electrolytes Based on Aprotic Aprotic electrolytes are usually needed if reactants or especially basic intermediates would be protonated by a protic solvent.

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