Holocene Extinctions (Oxford Biology) by Samuel T. Turvey

By Samuel T. Turvey

The level to which human task has encouraged species extinctions throughout the contemporary prehistoric previous continues to be debatable as a result of different components resembling climatic fluctuations and a basic loss of facts. even though, the Holocene (the geological period spanning the final 11,500 years from the tip of the final glaciation) has witnessed enormous degrees of extinctions that experience persevered into the fashionable old period, yet in a context of basically particularly minor climatic fluctuations. This makes a close attention of those extinctions an invaluable method for investigating the affects of human task over time.Holocene Extinctions describes and analyses the variety of world extinction occasions that have happened in this key period of time, in addition to their dating to either past and ongoing species losses. by means of integrating info from fields as different as zoology, ecology, palaeontology, archaeology and geography, and via incorporating info from a wide variety of taxonomic teams and ecosystems, this novel textual content presents a desirable perception into human affects on worldwide extinction charges, either previous and present.This actually interdisciplinary publication is acceptable for either graduate scholars and researchers in those different fields. it's also helpful to policy-makers and conservation pros because it offers invaluable assistance on the way to observe classes from the earlier to avoid destiny biodiversity loss and tell glossy conservation making plans.

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2007). However, Holocene last-occurrence dates have been suggested in the recent literature for a surprisingly large number of megafaunal mammals that disappeared during the Late Pleistocene elsewhere in Eurasia. Ma and Tang (1992) and Tong and Liu (2004) reported dates of 7815±385 years bp for the hyaena Crocuta [crocuta] ultima (the taxonomic status of which remains unclear; Kurtén 1956; Rohland et al. 2005), 7380±100 years bp for Mammuthus primigenius, 4235 years bp for the giant tapir Megatapirus augustus, 4100 years bp for the elephantid Stegodon 26 HOLOCENE EX TINCTIONS orientalis, 3630±90 years bp for the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, and 3140±110 years bp for the short-horned water buffalo Bubalus mephistopheles.

2002). However, whereas continued research into North American continental megafaunal extinctions has strengthened the evidence for a temporally short, intensive end-Pleistocene ‘extinction window’ between 11 500 and 10 000 years bp (Barnosky et al. 2004; although see Waters and Stafford 2007), last-occurrence data indicate that megafaunal species experienced more complex extinction chronologies in other continental regions. 1 Europe and northern Asia: staggered megafaunal extinctions The northern Eurasian fossil record shows distinct phases of megafaunal extinction during the Late Quaternary.

1973); Bachmayer and Symeonidis (1975); Bachmayer et al. (1976) Honea (1975) Reese et al. (1996) 12 135±485* 9240±550 Simmons (1999) 6970±80 Benzi et al. (2007) 4785±40 Ramis and Alcover (2005) 29 30 HOLOCENE EX TINCTIONS further radiometric analysis is required to support the possibility of late survival of Mediterranean elephantids into the Holocene. The only well-documented potential evidence for direct hunting of Mediterranean megafauna by early settlers is from the Akrotiri Aetokremnos rockshelter on Cyprus, where burnt Phanourios minor and Elephas cypriotes remains have been reported from early human occupation horizons (Simmons 1999); however, this site may alternatively represent a natural fossil assemblage (Ramis and Alcover 2005).

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